Japanese red maple - this is a very beautiful, decorative spectacular tree.
All summer and autumn, these beautiful plants delight the eye with their extraordinary beauty, and in winter you can enjoy the unusual structure of their crowns.
It has a lot of thin branches.
Description and varieties of red maple
Red Japanese Maple trees include: palmate, fan and Japanese maple, and many more varieties that breeders brought on the basis of the above.
From the name of the tree it can be understood that the land of the Japanese maple is the Land of the Rising Sun. Between themselves, they differ in carved leaves, which have purple or bright orange colors and shades, and another difference is the crown.
The size of the trees depends on their species; they are three meters wide and up to eight meters high. Mapled maple trees may be taller, and fan maple trees are low-growing species. Flowers of red maple are small, they are red or yellow-green in color, the color depends on the variety. After flowering, the flowers turn into seeds of the lionfish, these seeds scatter for many kilometers, and later new trees grow from them. These trees are very beautiful and will decorate any garden or park.
Types of trees:
- Japanese. This plant has very beautiful and graceful leaves. The leaves change their color from spring to autumn, that is, the entire growing season. In spring, they are bright green, and in autumn - yellow, orange, maroon and cherry. This variety of trees is very afraid of frost, through which they are often grown in greenhouses and winter gardens.
- Japanese fan. This tree has several varieties, they are small, have a crown of a very original shape, the sheets are golden or red, they are very similar to a lace fan.
- Palate, red Japanese variety. This species is the most beautiful among the Japanese maples, it is so, because its leaves remain scarlet in summer and autumn. And also they are very beautiful forms, they can be, and five-fingered and nine-fingered, the leaves are made up of long blades. This species grows very slowly, can reach five meters in height, and the diameter of the crown is approximately three meters. The flowers of this tree are red, flowering begins in June.
In addition to the varieties listed above, there are many hybrid forms that were bred in Japan. Here are some of them:
- View of Shirasawa - this maple is small enough, its height becomes only one and a half meters. It has wide leaves, along the edges of which there is a border, their color is yellow-orange.
- View "Bloodgood", different from other ink-black leaves.
- Variety "Beni Cava". This tree has a ruby bark and bright scarlet or fiery red leaves.
- View Katsura It has red sheets, which in summer are transformed into green ones, and in the autumn they become golden.
- View "Nicholsonii". Its leaves are green in the summertime, and in the fall they change into a brick-red robe.
- Sort "Aconitifolium". This tree is multi-stemmed, has curved branches and leaves of dark red color.
- View “Mikawa yatsubusa”This small tree is about one and a half meters in height; it is dense with a squat crown. The lobes of the leaves are thin and needle-shaped, have a bright green color in the summer, and in the fall they are orange-scarlet.
- View “Shino Buga OkaThis species reaches only one meter in height. The tree is incredibly sprawling. It has decorative leaves that are bright green in summer and yellow-orange in autumn.
Soil for planting tree
The tree of this species will not grow in the soil where there is a lot of alkali, and also does not like places where water stagnates and there is no water permeability. But the scorching rays of the sun, and the drying of the soil is very bad for the appearance of the leaves. The most affected by the scorching sun are the species that have two-colored or edged leaves. Such varieties should grow in partial shade.
Very good Japanese species develops with abundant, diffused light.
The trees will feel best in gardens and parks where the bright sun appears in the morning and in the evening, and where it will not appear in the afternoon. Drafts this tree is not afraid at all.
It is important not to forget that Japanese maples are heat-loving trees, they are very afraid of spring frosts, frosts damage their young leaves. For this reason, trees should be covered with a garden fleece for the winter.
In an area where the mild climate of the branches of the maple need to be cleared of snow, as they can break under its weight. Fan-maple suffers most from snow.
During the drought period, the maples need to be watered often and often, the leaves must be sprayed in the morning and evening. If you do not do this, then the tree under the scorching sun and from lack of moisture will experience very great stress, it will show its sheets, the tips, which will dry, and then fall off.
If this happens, the tree should be watered frequently, spray regularly and stop feeding. This will help him recover and regain his former appearance.
In the spring and autumn, it is necessary to carry out mulching of the soil around the trunk; for this purpose, foliage humus, tree bark, garden compost and various chips are suitable. Mulching is very important for Japanese maple. It will protect the soil from drying out, and the root system from freezing will also serve as fertilizer throughout the year.
Before mulching with compost or humus, it is necessary to put granules of approval into the ground, and then sprinkle the soil on top with colored chips. Spring feeding, which slowly act and will feed the maple all year. But with nitrogenous fertilizers to feed the tree is strictly prohibited.
If the soil in which poor maple grows on mineral substances, then fertilizer needs to be applied twice a year, these should be mineral substances that last for a long time. Feed the tree in this case should be in spring and summer.
Pruning is needed only for adults and old, very thickened trees that have lost their decorative effect. Such trees pruning is necessary in order to make them look lighter and more transparent, especially since pruning is also the prevention of fungal diseases. Pruning is done when the maple is in a dormant period — it is early spring or late autumn.
If the tree is the right care, it will delight you with its beauty for many years.
Japanese maple in the garden
In areas where the cold climate prevails, maple trees should be grown in pots so that they can be moved to a cool, but not frosty place for the winter.
Growing a tree in a tub has another plus — it can be moved to shade, to the sun, or to any other place, and it also makes it possible to protect the maple from heavy rain or hail.
In Japan, these trees are set on the bases, this is done to ensure that their beauty is better visible, as the trees are short.
Japanese maple blends very well with other ornamental plants, such as shrubs, other trees, various flowers and ornamental grasses. Japanese maple will decorate any garden, pond, stone garden, park or just a place to relax.
Japanese maples will be very beautifully combined with such autumn flowers - asters, oak trees and chrysanthemums. Especially it will be incredibly beautiful in autumn, as the leaves of the maples at this time change their color and become the most decorative.
And also maple trees with stunted evergreen shrubs will look good: decorative coniferous bushes, boxwood and juniper.
General information with a description of varieties
The Japanese maples include the maple palmate (Acer palmatum), the maple fan (Dissectum), and the Japanese maple (Acer japonicum), as well as numerous varieties derived from them by breeders.
As the name suggests, the homeland of the Japanese maples is the Land of the Rising Sun. All of them are distinguished by decorative carved leaves of purple and bright orange colors and shades, and a beautiful crown structure.
The size of the Japanese maples, depending on the species, are from 2-3 meters to 8 meters in height. Clan-shaped maples are taller, and fan-shaped ones are short. The flowers do not differ in large size, have a yellow-green or red color, which depends on the variety. From the flowers grow seeds of the lionfish, which spread over long distances, growing into new trees. Many Japanese maples are distinguished by their decorative crown and bark. Due to these features, the tree becomes a real decoration of the garden or greenhouse.
- Japanese maple (Acer japonicum) - a plant with beautiful, graceful leaves. The color of leaves changes throughout the growing season - from spring to autumn. If in spring and summer they are bright green, in the fall they turn burgundy, cherry, orange, yellow. Unfortunately, this variety does not have high frost resistance, in the northern regions it can be grown only in greenhouses and winter gardens in tubs.
In addition to the basic varieties, there are many hybrid forms bred in Japan. Each of these forms has a name that conveys a feature of the variety, the main thing is to properly understand them.
- Maple Shirasawa (Acer shirasawanum) - one of the smallest, about 1.5 meters high. Its leaves are wide, with a border around the edges, yellow-orange.
- The “Bloodgood” variety has a unique ink-black color on the leaves.
- The variety "Beni Kava" has bright scarlet, bright leaves and fiery red, ruby shade of bark.
- The Katsura variety has red young leaves that turn green in summer and golden in autumn.
- The variety “Nicholsonii” is distinguished by green leaves in summer, and brick-red in autumn.
- The Aconitifolium variety is multi-stemmed, with curved branches and dark red foliage.
- The variety “Mikawa yatsubusa” is small in size - up to 1.5 meters, with a dense, squat crown. The leaves of it consist of thin, needle-shaped blades, bright green in summer and orange-scarlet in autumn.
- The variety “Shino Buga Oka” is not tall, from 1 meter to 1.2-1.3 meters high. The plant is very sprawling, with decorative leaves, bright green in summer and yellow-orange in autumn.
Planting and care
In the wild, Japanese maple grows well on soil that is rich in humus and with a slightly acid reaction. It prefers semi shady places and a stable level of humidity.
Japanese maple does not like strongly alkaline soils, places with stagnant moisture and low permeability. However, the drying and scorching rays of the daytime body also have a bad effect on the decorative effect of its leaves. More than the rest from direct sunlight suffer varieties of Japanese maples, having two-colored or fringed leaves, such varieties should be planted in the penumbra.
Best of all, the decorative properties of these plants are manifested in abundant, diffused light. In the park or in the garden, they will feel good in places where the sun is in the morning and evening, and where it does not look in the afternoon. The choice of a place for planting maple is facilitated by the fact that he is not afraid of drafts.
It must be remembered that the Japanese maples are heat-loving plants, they are poorly tolerated by spring frosts that damage young leaves. Due to the low frost resistance in central Russia, trees need to be covered with a covering material for the winter, for example, with a garden fleece.
In areas with a mild climate in winter, maple branches need to be freed from the sticking of wet snow in order to protect them from damage, the fan-shaped maple suffers especially from snow. But when the branches are covered with ice after a “hot rain” or thaw, they should not be touched - they will break.
In the summer, especially in drought, the maples must be watered abundantly and often, in the morning or evening to spray the leaves. In conditions of lack or excess of moisture, under the influence of dry and hot wind, under the scorching sun the tree will experience real stress, which will make itself known by drying the tips of the leaves and dropping the leaves.
If this happens, the maple will begin to water more often, spraying, and abolishing top dressing. These measures will help bring it back to life, and new leaves will appear on it even in summer.
In spring and autumn, the soil around the trunk should be mulched with humus from the leaves, tree bark, garden compost, and chips. Mulching is of great importance for the tree - protection against drying out of the soil in the summer, protection of the roots from freezing in the winter, additional fertilizer all year round.
To prevent the trunk from decaying, next to it should not be poured organic materials used for mulching.
In the spring, fertilizer granules are applied to the soil under the tree, and only then they are covered with mulch from humus or compost, and sprinkled with colored chips on top. Spring feeding slow-moving fertilizers maple enough for the whole year, nitrogenous fertilizers it is absolutely contraindicated.
If maple grows on poor soil, it must be fed 2 times a year with long-lasting minerals - in spring and summer.
As for pruning - it is carried out only on adults and old thickened trees that have lost their former decoration. They need pruning in order to make the crown more transparent, light, and open to air and sunlight - these measures will be an excellent prevention of fungal diseases. Pruning should be done in a period of rest - in early spring or late autumn, when there are no leaves on the tree.
Young maple trees do not need pruning, trees grow very slowly, and a beautiful crown is formed naturally in them.
Maple in the garden
In regions with a cold climate, Japanese maple trees are grown in tubs, which are stored in a cool place for the winter. Growing maple in a tub provides another advantage - the ability to move them, if necessary, in the shade, in the sun or in a place protected from wind, hail and rain.
Since the trees are short, in Japan, tubs with them are set on a stand, so that their wonderful beauty is better noticeable.
Needless to say, an ornamental tree goes well with other garden dwellers - shrubs, trees, flowers, ornamental grasses. The tree will decorate with itself any corner of a garden - a reservoir, a rock arias, a stone Japanese garden.
Maples, the leaves of which become the most decorative in autumn, will look good next to autumn flowers - chrysanthemums, oak trees, asters. They can be planted next to a tree to finally admire the colorful and bright beauty of the autumn garden.
Good neighbors for the Japanese maples will be stunted evergreen shrubs after cutting, for example, boxwood, juniper, ornamental conifers.
In a pinch, you can do without flowers and shrubs - just fall asleep the ground around the painted fine gravel or chips.
Description of Japanese Maple
In natural landscapes - deciduous tree or shrub up to 10 meters. The bark and branches are painted in a reddish-gray color, they are smooth.
The leaves of our maple are cut into half of the diameter into several segments (from 7 to 11), large (coverage up to 15 centimeters). Depending on the grade, the dissection of the leaflets can be different, sometimes they are very feathery. Scapes on which leaves grow, 3-5 cm long, may be pubescent.
Due to the magnificent color of the leaves, this species of maple has become so popular, the crowns of a handsome Japanese man are fluttering in the middle of the garden with a red flame. Some of its species have a purple-red foliage color throughout the vegetative season, others change color from green to yellow and crimson.
Bright flowers of small size appear earlier than the leaves in spring. Of them are formed krylatki. These are achenes up to 3 centimeters in length, with the help of which the reproduction of plants of this genus takes place.
Eastern maple trees are grown in the open field and in special tubs.
Types and interesting varieties
The Japanese maple has several subspecies, and the breeders have developed amazing varieties, which no one can pass by indifferently. They differ in the shape of the tree and the leaves, demanding on the conditions of detention. Can be, as high copies, and undersized.
It should be noted that culturally cultivated varieties are much more picturesque and are much more common in basic natural varieties. In addition to the above-described main species, others are also grown.
The original tree has a spreading crown with beautiful, carved leaves. Long-leafed leaves have a lace shape, they retain golden yellow or red color throughout the season. Throwing off the foliage, this plant remains a decoration of the garden, thanks to the elegant branches. It blooms red in June, and many varieties have been created on its basis.
A rare variety with a height of up to 15 meters, there are shrubs of low growth shape. Leaf plate is not much cut, large. Aureum is a prominent representative of this species. This shrub grows up to 4 meters up, has a yellow-orange leaf with a border around the edge. Winter-hardy enough variety, but they love to cultivate it in tubing conditions.
Yellow-green leaves with a red border are painted in a red-orange color scheme. Orange Dream is growing fast and is tall.
Very ornamental shrub with delicate outlines of dark red leaves, almost inky shade. Even in the shade does not lose the dark color of the foliage.
Height 1.5 meters, bush dense and squat. Acicular leaves, green in spring, in autumn - scarlet.
One and a half meters in 10 years - this tree grows to such a height. It has a dense bushy crown, its leaves are deeply cut. Когда он станет кроваво-красного цвета, он приобретает особенную привлекательность. Shaina высаживают в контейнеры, украшая ими террасы и веранды, холлы домов.
Сорт красного японского клена достигает во взрослом состоянии 1,8 метра. Зеленые листья окаймлены красным и разрезаны. Насыщенность окраски сохраняет в полутени.
The leaves are bright, original red bark.
Finely divided conifer-like leaves in spring are green, becoming reddish-purple or orange-yellow by autumn. Very beautiful, attractive appearance gives the tree a huge coverage of the crown, almost twice the height. Such drooping varieties of shrubs should be placed near the ponds or arbors.
Wilson’s Pink Dwarf
Fan maple variety is not too hardy. The height of the shrub in adult form is 2.5 meters, the coverage is less by 1 meter. The leaves grow on red branches and have an orange color.
Deeply dissected green leaves with a pink or red border give a spectacular view. By the end of the season, the color changes to a purple color.
Where to buy seedlings, where and how to plant
Do not buy seeds of Japanese maple on the Internet from unknown vendors. It is advisable to come to the nursery or shop engaged in certified sales and buy a tree.
It is better to acquire a sapling in spring or autumn, you need to make sure that the bush does not have any damage. It is necessary to land immediately.
Japanese maple varieties like scattered shade and water permeability of the soil. It is not necessary to choose too alkaline soil and cultivate the land with lime.
The soil should be sufficiently fertile or slightly acidic, necessarily loose.
- The pit is dug twice as large as the root system of the plant,
- Pour drainage into the hole, then humus or compost with peat,
- Moisten and straighten roots, plant a tree, sprinkle with earth and water,
- To preserve moisture zamulchirovat pristvolny space.
Preparing for the winter
In the summer you need to start preparing the maple tree for winter. Finish dressing, watering and loosening. In late autumn, remove all leaves from the bush, and after the first freezing, spray the branches with a weak (3%) copper-containing solution.
In the northern regions of Russia, this culture is still safer to plant in tubs, and bring it to a cool place for the winter period. Wintering is also practiced right in pots laid on the side in the garden, in a shallow trench.
In the middle lane practicing hiding for the winter garden non-woven material. Well, if the winter is snowy, then the maple can survive it stably.
With the arrival of spring, it is necessary to awaken a kadochny plant so that it adapts faster and grows. To do this, after frosts leave, on warm days a tree is shed with plenty of water.
Attention! Tender young leaves will inevitably burn in the sun in the springtime. To prevent this, a pot plant is harvested in partial shade or covered, as well as an open ground plant, with a light covering material.
Japanese Maple in Landscape Design
Low growth allows you to successfully grow a plant in coils. The advantage of this method is that the capacity can be moved from one place to another, saving from the sun or removed for the winter, and also from time to time put in different parts of the garden.
The pots are placed on stands, so that they are more noticeable. Whether it is necessary to mention that a slowly growing tree is used to create bonsai. They are formed by special trimming, using wire and other techniques.
The maple dwarf home layout is favorable for indoor air. It moisturizes, gives oxygen and pleases with flowering.
Red Maple is an excellent partner for other garden plants in the garden. It has a not too powerful root system, and does not oppress nearby cultures.
Combined with shrubs, flowering and cereal crops. The neighborhood gives an exclusive look to the garden in the autumn, when the green leaves of other trees stand next to the purple and orange caps of the “Japanese”.
Stony gardens in the Japanese style, rock arias, rock garden, the roof of the building, lawn - everywhere klenok will be a central figure. You can plant these handsome along the walking paths.
The neighborhood and the shores of small artificial reservoirs can be decorated with a picturesque bush planted nearby.
We are accustomed to seeing in the parks and forests of Norway maple - a typical example of perennial vegetation of European latitudes. The description of such a tree as the Japanese maple, is somewhat different from the usual spider. Here the name speaks for itself, the plant really comes from the Land of the Rising Sun. In their natural environment, they are shrubs, semi-shrubs or small trees that reach no more than ten meters in height. Shrub gained its popularity thanks to the crown of an unusual red-gray or orange-gray shadebut. Due to the bright color of the plant is well poured into the garden and park area, making it beautiful at any time of the year, and not only in the fall.
Despite the compactness of the bush, its leaves are large enough, palmate at the edges. A special attraction adds another bark of the bush, which has a nice gray color, smooth and does not crack, like other trees.
The flowering guest from Japan looks very nice. The inflorescences are bright, have a purple-red color. They appear in April.
The plant due to its "design" looks spectacular, even in winter.
Popular species and varieties
Under the term "Japanese maple" usually refer to three types of wood: fan, Shirasawa and directly Japanese. Their differences are not so significant, but they are extremely important for choosing the "necessary" plant in gardening.
The legendary fan, or palm-shaped maple got its name due to the special structure of the leaves, which can be the "highlight" of any park. It has the shape of an open palm or a lacy fan and becomes bright scarlet in June. The height of the palmate tree does not exceed two meters. This species includes many plant varieties, but The most popular are the following:
- 'Orange Dream'.
Not the most common, but attracting admiring glances Shirasawa Maple has a huge range of colors: from bright yellow to maroon-red. Unlike other ornamental species, it can grow large enough: up to 15 m high and with a trunk up to 60 cm in diameter. Japanese maple and its variety 'Dissectum Nigrum' are very popular, the black and red foliage of which harmonizes remarkably with the green lawns of many landscapes.
Competent selection of seedlings
Since the plant is quite expensive, then the choice of seedlings should be approached carefully. Decide on the Japanese maple variety: if you have a large growing area, then you can safely stop at large trees (for example, Shirasawa maple), in the case of a limited area it is better to buy shrubs.
Seedling recommended to buy in a container, as in this case, planting and further care of the Japanese maple will be easier and safer. In addition, the probability that the tree will take root, is higher, since it will be in the “native” soil and its root system will not suffer during the landing.
Buying maple stands in a special store. It should have a fresh healthy appearance, without slack leaves or any kind of damage.
Where to plant
Many people are afraid to acquire a representative of the Japanese flora, considering this plant to be capricious and unsuitable for our latitudes. This is not true. Growing Japanese red maple at home is possible, but there are still some nuances when choosing a place to plant. First, you should choose a location where the soil will be sufficiently hydrated. On the other hand, make sure that there is not a large amount of stagnant moisture, the plant does not like it.
Secondly, best of all your handsome will feel in cozy and sheltered from the wind. Draft, he is not particularly afraid, but still in a quiet corner will grow much faster.
There are no special requirements for lighting. Of course, it is better not to land in a completely dark place. Remember that for the natural processes of photosynthesis is very necessary light. In addition to this, the varied color of maple in the sun will play brighter.
And finally, do not forget about the "neighbors" of this beautiful plant. Do not recommend to plant near other large trees. This will “steal” the light from the maple, and the site will be overloaded, the maple will be lost between the big branches. In addition, the crown should have enough space for growth and development. The best option would be the flowers next to the Japanese maple. Chrysanthemums, violets and gladioli look good.
As noted earlier, maple loves moisturebut not "standing water". That is why experienced gardeners advise to take care of drainage for its root system (small stones, screenings). Watering the seedling is often, but not too plentiful.
Almost any soil is suitable; for trees, high humus content is natural. The only exception is too alkaline earth. The soil must be fertile. When disembarking it is recommended to feed.
Scheme and technology
The technology of growing a tree is simple. It includes two stages, in the case of growing Japanese maple from seeds. Seeds are germinated in a standard way, like ordinary seedlings. They are soaked for 2-3 hours. After that, choose a container with a diameter of 10–15 cm and a height of 10–20 cm. Make small holes in the ground, spread the seeds separately from each other to a depth of 4–5 cm and sprinkle with a layer of soil. Then slightly moisten the soil and put in a warm place where there is no direct sunlight. For the greenhouse effect, it is better to cover the container with glass and let the seedlings “breathe” once a day.
When the maple grows and leaves begin to appear on it, it can be planted in a permanent place.
The scheme is as follows:
- A pit is made up to a depth of 30 cm.
- Sand and drainage (4–5 cm thick) are laid out on the bottom of the depression.
- Moisturized soil.
- The tree is carefully removed from the container and placed in a hole.
- Sprinkled with earth mixed with peat.
- Water the seedling and spray the leaves with a little water.
After some time it will be possible to reproduce the maple with fresh seeds. Vegetative reproduction is almost never practiced, since it is ineffective.
Soil care and watering
The frequency and need for watering depends on the climatic conditions of the territory, the moisture content of the soil itself. On average it is worth watering the soil in a day or two, making sure that there is enough water. In the hot season, maple usually requires not only more abundant watering, but also spraying its foliage. In the rainy season, additional moisture should not be given. If the tree is deprived of attention, the leaves may begin to dry or fall off completely.
In the spring and autumn they still produce mulching of the soil. It consists in sprinkling the soil around the tree with bark. This protects against drying out of the root system in summer and freezing in winter.
Fertilizer used to apply in the spring with a frequency of once a month. The complex mixture for dressing is laid out around a tree trunk or poured into a layer of 5 cm of fresh compost in small loosening.
Last lasting fertilizer is applied in the first half of July.
Japanese maple is an extremely thermophilic plant, which is why winter time is stressful enough for it. To protect the bush from freezing, worth doing a set of actions:
- in late autumn, lay out a layer of mulch 10–13 cm thick around the root system,
- at low temperatures, it is better to warm the trunk with a spruce pine tree,
- spring frozen branches removed.
If you follow all the rules, your plant will spend the winter very well.
Application in landscape design
Although this foreign plant is not a cheap pleasure, it is very beautiful, so it is widely used in landscape design. Recently, a new fashionable idea has appeared among tree lovers - a small Japanese garden. The whole "salt" is that Japanese maple trees of various varieties are planted along the avenues, thus arranging a gradation of color from golden to blueberry. Such is a small paradise for perfectionism and aesthetics. The tree looks wonderful next to ornamental grasses, as well as ponds and natural stone, fits well into the landscape of a park or garden. Low-growing varieties of maple can be grown in containers as an ordinary home plant, and in the warm season to make on the terrace, making it bright and colorful. The breathtaking landscape can decorate any place all year round. Plant it and enjoy the view!
The appearance of the tree
At this time, there are about a hundred species of Japanese maple. A huge variety of this plant will allow you to choose your favorite look, perfect for your landscape design. The height of the tree ranges from two to ten meters. The leaves are of different colors: purple, green, pink, yellow, you can find more unusual colors. For example, the Chinese maple, it is Bonsai, has a blue, white, blue color of leaves.
The tree has a large wide crown, a bit like a palm. This is surprisingly a beautiful tree. Its bright foliage it uplifting and inspiring to engage in creative work.
Much to my regret In the northern regions, growing Japanese maple on the street will not be easy, but if you plant a tree in a large container, which can be brought into a house or utility room in winter, you will have the opportunity to grow a chic plant.
When purchasing a sapling, it should be remembered that planting and caring for it will require careful preparation. It depends on this process whether the tree will have the desired leaf color.
Planting and maintenance must strictly comply with the growing instructions. Otherwise, it is unlikely you will be able to grow a healthy and beautiful plant.
Penumbra is an ideal place for Japanese maple, as the leaves can get burned under the bright rays of the sun. Landing for landing should be drained.
The Japanese plant loves the acidic soil, filled with humus. To make it strong, the land around it needs to be fertilized once a month in spring and summer, in winter time, fertilizing is not done.
In the case when the seedling is planted in fertile land - one dressing will be enough for a whole year. If the soil is scarce, then the tree should be fertilized a second time in the summer and only until August, after this fertilizer cannot be applied to the soil, since the plant needs preparation for winter.
Japanese tree loves water. A young seedling must not only be watered, but also provided with a large volume of water. In the summer, it is watered once in seven days, in the cold season - once a month. Having finished watering, pluck out all the weeds and loosen the ground around the tree so that the soil is not strongly compacted. With poor watering the tree grows very slowly.
The method of planting a maple sapling is simple, you just need to remember some rules. To properly plant a Japanese tree, you need to prepare in advance:
- healthy seedling
- peat and compost for soil fertilization.
The dimensions of the pit should be twice the root span of the seedling. Carefully untangle the roots before planting the tree. Lower the peat and compost into the dug hole, then carefully submerge the sapling and cover it from above with soil, slightly tamping.
Make around the seedling bumpers, it will hold moisture. Fill well with water, so that the root system will start soon. In hot weather, maple water more often and plentifully. It is very important that the roots of the maple receive moisture in full quantity, otherwise the leaves from its shortage will have an unattractive brown color. The tree does not like lime: if the roots come into contact with it, the maple will shed its foliage.
Spread the mulch layer of soil mixed with the leaves on top. This is an excellent weed protection, and moisture will linger well in the root circle.
Tree Care Tips
Care and planting are individual for each type of plant. Many of them prefer the sun, but at the same time do not like direct hot rays. This does not apply to those trees that have a double color on the leaves - they prefer shade. It should be borne in mind:
- Draft and strong winds Japanese maple is not afraid. If the climatic conditions in your region are cold, then the tree should be carefully covered for the winter period. The ideal material for warming maple is a soft and warm garden fleece.
- In winter, shake snow from branches, as they may break due to gravity. After the winter thaw, do not touch the branches covered with ice-crust, they are easy to damage.
- Forming the maple crown, the branches must be cut at the beginning of growth, then it is necessary to cut only the sick and damaged parts.
In the case when the crown of the tree becomes very thick and its appearance is not so attractive, you need to trim. This is done as soon as the tree drops foliage. This will return the crown transparency and save the plant from the disease fungal infection.
Collecting and planting seeds
Japanese maple breeds seeds, which are collected in the month of October. They are stratified, preparing for planting. Then laid out in dry sandy soil, stored in a cool place.
In early spring, planting material is treated with a growth stimulator and sown in special containers.. During the summer, the seedlings grow well, after which they are sorted, leaving high and strong shoots. Grown seedlings their first winter should remain indoors, in their containers. Then they are transplanted into pots, each separately. Когда растения вырастают, их высаживают в открытый грунт.
- Японский веерный.
Они отличаются формой листьев, разнообразной их расцветкой и формой кроны.
- Японский клен. Растение подходит для оранжерей или мест с теплым климатом. Совершенно не выносит морозов. Характеризуется изящными листочками. They change color during the period of their existence: from green in spring to autumn yellow and red hues.
- Japanese fan. These are low trees with an unusual crown. Lace leaves, shaped like a fan, are characterized by a red or golden color scheme.
- Palmate. The most beautiful plant in the family of Japanese maples. Interestingly, the shape of palm-like leaves has from 5 to 9 fingers. They have burgundy color throughout the warm period. The culture grows slowly, reaches a height of 5 meters, the crown is 3 meters in diameter.
Of the hybrid varieties such trees are especially common:
- "Shirasawa". Low view, not more than one and a half meters. Yellow-orange leaves have a dark edging.
- Bloodgood has foliage inks.
- At a grade of "Beni Kava" ruby bark and red leaves.
- Shino buga oka, dwarf view meter height. The tree is very sprawling. Foliage changes color from bright green in summer to yellow-orange in autumn.
Planting maple in open ground
Planting Japanese maple begins with the preparation of planting pits. It depends on the size of the seedling. The volume should be twice the root lobe with a clod of earth. The soil requires slightly acidic or neutral, breathable, enriched with humus or compost.
It is not necessary to deepen a sapling any more, than it grew in the container. It is necessary to carefully fill the voids, slightly tamping the ground. Next, you need to make watering, you can re-water the tree after soaking the first portion of water. Pristvolny circle need to mulch.
Agrotehnika cultivation and care
This is quite a fastidious plant. It requires regular watering, and in dry times, young plantings in the evening it is useful to spray water on the crown. After the snow has melted, the first dressing is done, scattering granular fertilizers around the trunk. On poor soils, fertilizers are also applied in summer. Do not use nitrogen supplements for Japanese maple.
You can not plant colorful species in the bright sun, they will lose their decorative effect. The best places to put Japanese maple where they are lit in the morning and evening. At noon, the culture should be shaded by other plantings or structures.
The soil around the tree must be mulched with compost, bark or humus. This will protect the roots from drying out and freezing in the fall and spring.
Cropping and crown formation
Usually these trees form the first time after planting. In the future, they do not require pruning. The beauty of the crown is achieved naturally, the tree itself branches well and forms a cloud of branches, which is characteristic of Japanese design.
It is necessary to cut off the old drying branches that impair the appearance and are a breeding ground for pests. Another pruning is important to make the crown aerial, to remove thickening shoots, to allow good ventilation.
It should be remembered that pruning is possible when the tree is at rest. The best time for this - after flying over the foliage in the fall.
Plant propagation methods
The main breeding method of Acer japonicum is sowing seeds. They ripen in October, and they need to be collected immediately. Store material in the winter in the dry cool place. It does not remain viable for long, therefore maple trees are sown next April.
- Sowing produced in containers.
- For better germination, seeds are treated with growth stimulants.
- Over the summer, they grow little, leaving only strong shoots. Grown up seedlings are kept in the winter in a room with a positive temperature.
- Overwintered plants are transplanted into pots, which are placed in a shady corner of the site.
- When seedlings grow to 30 cm, they can be transplanted into the open ground.
- It is permissible to plant maples in tubs. In this case, you need to monitor the fertility of the soil in the tank. This plant will need additional feeding.
Another method of reproduction is to use a graft on a strong stock.
Japanese maple wintering
Young seedlings for the winter should be covered carefully. A small hut made of covering material is arranged above the plant, it is covered with fallen leaves from above and covered with branches so that the wind does not stir. The roots mulch with humus or peat.
As the plant grows, the shelter is enlarged; Mulching of roots is used for plants of any growth and age.
If you want to grow Japanese maple in the northern regions, use low-growing varieties planted in large pots. In this case, you need a cool room to save the plant in winter.
Disease and pest prevention
Maple precipitated pests that are dangerous to almost all deciduous trees. It:
Among the most dangerous diseases are powdery mildew and black spot. Diseases should not only be fought but tried to prevent them. To do this, use a variety of processing methods.
- In the spring, spraying with solutions of various preparations and fungicides will help prevent the appearance of powdery mildew. Well shows the use of Bordeaux liquid.
- For harmful insects, treating trees with Iskra-Bio, Fitoverm, Zdoroviy Sad is used. Effective and long-acting means "Aktara", however, it is quite poisonous.
- Justified the use of folk recipes for the preparation of protective equipment. But it is worth considering that they have more deterrent effect.
Types and varieties
The genus of maples today has more than a hundred species and thousands of varieties. The category of Japanese representatives includes 2 deciduous species:
- Acer japonicum (actually Japanese maple itself). In the natural range prefers mountainous terrain. Cultural forms can boast broad (up to 15 cm in diameter) serrate leaves, which by the autumn from green become red-orange with yellowish patches. In height the bush reaches 8-10 m.
Attention! Under natural conditions, Japanese maples are found on the territory of the Sakhalin Region, and because of their scarcity, they are listed in the Red Book.
The most attractive varieties for the garden are:
- A. japonicum aconitifolium (aconitolist) is a tree shrub that is decorated with large, deeply dissected leaves of fiery orange, burgundy and yellow shades,
- A. japonicum vitifolium (vine-growing) - it is distinguished by its slow growth and picturesque round-shaped foliage, which is filled with bright purple by the autumn,
- A. palmatum sangokaku (maple with coral bark) - besides decorative deeply cut leaves with a pink border, it surprises with a spectacular coral-red bark,
- A. palmatum Garnet is a small, elegant tree with delicate leaves and low hanging branches. Fine-leaved leaves change shade from deep red to dark purple with a transition to rich purple,
- A. palmatum Katsura is a compact variety that produces purple-red flowers in early spring. The leaves in the spring yellowish with edging more saturated brick shade. At the height of summer, the maple changes color to an unpretentious green, and by the autumn it is filled with orange
- A. palmatum Butterfly - flaunts 5-bladed silver-green foliage, which sometimes coyly twists. In the spring, you can notice pinkish strokes, and in the autumn period, a rich purple takes the place of a silvery shade.
In order for a truly spectacular handsome maple to grow on your plot, you need to choose the right sapling in the garden center. Best of all, if a young plant will be in a container with a protected root system. In addition, the chances of a sapling increase on a new place will increase, because It will be planted along with the “native” ground. The best time to plant a tree is spring and autumn.
The soil on the site where the young maple will be planted should be fertile, without stagnant water. If you are not sure about whether there is stagnation of water, then it is better to use drainage during landing.
When growing, it is necessary to take into account the factor that maple can withstand frosts down to –20 ° C. At lower temperatures, the tree will need shelter. In this case, should choose undersized varieties of maple.
In the spring and autumn periods, the plant needs mulching. In the spring, before this procedure, a slow-moving fertilizer should be added to the tree circle. The next layer will be peat, and only then the mulch itself (wood chips or bark). Mulching helps retain moisture and protects the roots of a young plant from freezing.
Attention! High-speed strong fertilizers maple do not tolerate well.
Pests and diseases
With proper care, Japanese maples do not get sick and they are not afraid of pests. But if the tree is weakened, then the following problems are possible:
- The defeat of gallic aphids. Visually you can see on the leaves red swelling. Moreover, the aphid colony itself is located on the lower side of the leaf. The affected areas must be removed, and to fight use one of the specific drugs or use traditional recipes (soap solution, for example).
- Maple weevil. This pest prefers Norway maple, but does not disdain the Japanese. Bugs gnaw leaves and apical shoots, which significantly reduces the decorative plants.
- Whitefly. Damages young shoots and leaves. The tree not only loses its attractiveness due to loss of leaf mass and drying of the shoots, but also generally slows down growth.
- Fungal diseases. Most often from this group of diseases mealy dew occurs. Mycelium of the fungus disrupts the physiological processes of the plant, which leads to drying and foliage abscission. In general, the culture decreases resistance to adverse environmental conditions. But do not despair - with the right methods of treatment, Japanese exot quickly recovers.
Tips and tricks
- If you decide to propagate maple by cutting, then this does not always lead to the desired result. It is better to apply the graft or seed reproduction method.
- This crop does not need pruning, since from nature a beautiful crown is formed. But if you still decide to improve the shape of your tree or shrub, then this should be done before the start of sap flow.
- Maple looks great in a single planting, but still it will look most impressive next to conifers (thujas, for example).
- If you are a fan of bonsai, then this type of art is best suited for the form.
Preferring to decorate your plot to the Japanese maple, you will not go wrong in choosing. In gloomy autumn days, a spectacular plant will delight you and your guests with a picturesque outfit.