Sweet cherry is a close relative of the cherry and has been known since ancient times. Even eight thousand years before our era, our ancestors loved to feast on it. In many languages of the world, the name is consonant with the word Cherry - sweet cherry. Do not be surprised if being abroad, you will see a poster for Chekhov's play The Cherry Orchard, not a cherry one. This is basically the same thing.
It is a large woody plant, reaching 8–12 meters in height, and thirty-meter specimens are found in the wild. The young tree after landing, differs in rapid growth. The roots of the tree are often arranged horizontally, but there are conditions that vertical strong roots can also be formed.. In the first two or three years the plant forms taproot, which later forks. The crown is usually oval. Cherry bark silver or brown, sometimes we can see the flaky scales.
Thanks to thick, elegant crowns, leaves of different colors and shades and bright beads to the berries, it is gorgeous not only in spring, but also throughout the season. These tasty beads have a variety of colors - they are yellow, orange, pink-white, and red-black, shiny like satin or matte like velvet.
Choosing a seedling where to start?
The plant must be young, one or two years old. Examining when purchasing seedlings, inspect and pay attention to the trunk of the plant: it should be visible trace of vaccination. Only a varietal plant is grafted, which means the tree will start to bear fruit earlier, there will be a richer taste and a larger size of berries. Choosing a sapling, look at the number of branches from which you yourself will be able to form the crown of your cherry.
But even more important is the presence of the conductor, the main trunk. It should be strong, healthy, in good condition, and a weak trunk will have competitors from stronger branches. If the sapling consists of two or three conductors, trunks, then with a high yield they can not stand and break, causing your tree to die. And, of course, Kornand: they should not be damaged, dry, brittle. Only strong seedlings with healthy roots will take root in the garden and will delight you and your family.
Selection and preparation of a place for a tree
Pick a place before planting a sweet cherry, taking into account that the tree is thermophilic. For planting the stalk area must meet these conditions.
It will be good to grow and delight with sweet cherry crops:
- in warm and well-lit areas
- protected from winds and drafts
- It is better to live on the slopes, where the groundwater will not disturb,
- spring water is not stagnant
- the place should contain fertile soil, without admixture of clay or crushed stone, with all the substances necessary for the cherry tree,
- have a moist, loosened soil that allows oxygen to pass through,
- live next to a cherry or another cherry for better pollination of flowers
- coexist with another cherry or cherry for good pollination,
- do not grow next to the apple tree.
How to plant a sweet cherry? How to start planting cherries?
Since autumn we are preparing places for planting cherries in spring. We dig pits about three to five in depth and about a meter wide and from each other. Here our relatives will grow cherries - cherries and pollinate each other.
In the finished hole we fall asleep:
- rotted manure (bucket)
- deciduous land (a couple of buckets).
And leave until spring. If your soil is often too wet, then put a drain in the hole at the bottom.
From the beginning of spring we add fertilizers: potassium and superphosphate, mix thoroughly with the prepared soil. If you consider it necessary to post for support, then immediately put him in the hole. Before planting the cherry, we place the seedling in the center, carefully straightening the roots so that there are no wrists and bends upwards.
Slowly pour earth, we stamp a little. Make sure that the root neck of your tree remains 4-7 cm above ground level. The last procedure is watering. We do not regret water, we spend on average about a bucket and more, from above we mulch with old fallen leaves or humus.
Caring for a young cherry tree
Immediately after planting cherries, as you rooted the seedling, it is necessary to make the first pruning. To do this, remove the crown at a height of 1–1.2 meters. Next year, from the sleeping buds, new lateral branches will develop, which in the future will delight you with the harvest. The following autumn should be left on the tree after pruning 3-4 well-developed lateral branches and pruned by one third.
A central tree trunk (long vertical shoot) cut at a height of about one meter from the lower tier of the growth of branches. So we form a crown and lay the second tier ourselves. In the third year, we leave the 3 strongest escapes, and delete the rest. The central trunk is again shortened to a height of about a meter from the previous tier. When forming the last upper tier, we leave a couple of the strongest and healthiest branches.
Cherries do not like a lot of moisture, so watering once a month will be enough, with the exception of a hot dry summer, then it is better to water every 7–10 days. Watering under the trunk of a tree will be ineffective, because the main root deeply and does not absorb this moisture. And those roots that feed our tree moisture and nutrients are in the crown radius horizontally under the ground. Therefore, it is better to dig a groove the diameter of the outer branches and produce watering there.
Cooking sweet cherry for winter
The main concern for the gardener is the coming winter for the newly planted tree. How will it survive the cold? That is why you need to think and prepare the tree for the change of season:
Bottom seedlings need to wrap a row or sack cloth. Do not remove the film. Since winters are often warm here, a tree can be thrown away. And the gathered moisture, in severe frost, hitting cracks in the bark, can damage and split the trunk and the tree will die quickly.
If a lot of snow is poured, you can collect it in a heap around a seedling, than protect the tree from frost and winds. To protect against mice, you can decompose the bait - a poison.
Proper pruning of an adult tree
Planting and care is a very simple procedure. Correct care and pruning is more difficult, so that cherries please not only with beauty, but also with yield, pruning must be done annually, it is important for the quality of the berries and the quantity, prolongs the life of the tree and reduces the likelihood of disease. The best time to trim the end of winter, the beginning of spring, until the juice began to move. But if suddenly you missed these deadlines, then do not harm the pruning in the fall, since the tree likes its trunk to be cleaned. Constant pruning stimulates the growth of a large number of young shoots, and in fact it is on them that the fruits develop, and not on the old branches.
How to transplant cherry?
There are situations in life when you just need to transplant the cherry, and the tree is already an adult. If everything is done correctly, then this period of life will pass for the tree almost painlessly.
Easier to replant plantse no older than 6 years old and necessarily healthy, since the weak can not bear the shock and die.
Prepare for transplanting need to fall. When the sap flow has already stopped, we dig a moat about half a meter wide and the same depth along the crown diameter. Catch the roots and process garden pitch. The resulting ditch needs to be filled with rotted manure or peat, and the next summer should be watered abundantly, so the new roots will have time to spawn. Planting on a new place of an adult tree should be made as soon as all the leaves fall off. New pit should be larger and wider in one and a half - Two times the roots of sweet cherry.
How to save the cherry from the birds?
All experienced gardeners say: to grow a crop is half the battle, but to keep is a business! How to save it? Flocks of birds bring the most damage, which can deal with your garden in a matter of minutes. Crows, tits, sparrows and, of course, starlings love to eat this delicious berry. What only gardeners - gardeners do not invent:
- hang foil or old computer disks,
- tapes of old cassettes
- blue packets or rags (they say this bird is afraid of this color),
- old garlands
- set toys or plant a scarecrow,
- pull the line.
All these tricks are temporary., the bird gets used and stops responding to the wonderful devices.
Now kapron networks are sold in specialized stores, very light, strong and comfortable. Before harvesting the network removed and hid until next year.
How to multiply the sweet cherry?
Cherry is a tree that can be propagated by seed and graft. Seed propagation has a significant drawback; one cannot be sure about what will happen. This method is good only for breeding and growing the rootstock, to which later they inoculate a varietal, cultural graft. In the middle lane, the climate is mild, so you can use a young wild cherry tree for stock.
But so that your beauty could grow in any area and was not afraid of summer drought or winter frost, it is necessary to use the seed of productive and frost-resistant ordinary cherry, which, in turn, is not afraid of nearby groundwater and stagnant melt water. One drawback: a lot of root shoots.
Peeled cherry pits from my pulp and dried in a shaded, well-ventilated place. We mix with sand one to three and moisten. Leave alone for six months, only occasionally stirring and again moistening the resulting mass, we try to maintain the temperature no higher than five degrees.
With the onset of spring, our seeds are sown in prepared soil, at a distance of 8–12 cm from each other, no deeper than five centimeters. When shoots appear, it is necessary to thin them so that between shoots is about 5–6 cm. The main care for seedlings consists in timely loosening, watering and weeding. It is important to save our seedlings from rodents - sweet tooth. By the fall, our seedlings are strong, grown, now they can be moved to the nursery. To do this, we dig and select strong seedlings, with good roots up to 15–20 cm and a future stem thickness of –7–10 mm. On the territory of the nursery, I sit trees on a grid of ninety to thirty. In the spring varietal cultural cuttings are grafted to these stocks.
With vaccination you need to catch two or three weeks before active sap flow, otherwise the wound will oxidize and the graft will not take root well.
How to choose a cherry seedling for planting?
To grow a fruit tree you need to buy a healthy seedling for this. The root system of which should be bundled, not have damaged roots.
It is advisable to buy trees no older than three years, the younger they are, the better they take root. The bark of a healthy seedling is a smooth reddish-brown color, without signs of disease and frost penetration.
It is necessary to acquire “material” for planting either in autumn before frosts, or in spring before bud break.
How to choose a place on the site for landing?
Properly chosen place for growing a tree is the key to success in its future fruiting.
Sweet cherry is very light-requiring, therefore the place for its landing should be sunny. Due to its nature, it prefers to suppress other plants, so it is not recommended to plant it next to tall trees, so as not to disrupt its fruiting.
The soil should be fertile, loose, that is, allowing air to penetrate deep into the soil and have good moisture permeability. Ideal to plant in sandy and loamy soil. But the sandy and rocky ground is not favorable.
Sweet cherry neighborhood
For full growth and fruiting, it is necessary to properly consider the compatibility of plants in the same area. It is best to plant trees in groups, in our case it is a stone fruit. Therefore, the best option to plant several sweet cherries nearby.
Good neighbors are:
It is not recommended to plant next to:
During what period to plant sweet cherry?
Climatic conditions in the regions affect the planting time of cherry trees.
In the southern and central regions, they try to plant them mainly in the fall, approximately in the middle of September and the end of October. During autumn, the sapling has time to take root quite well, since in the south there are not severe winters and in spring they begin to grow actively.
In the spring, the Central, Northern and Far Eastern regions are engaged in landing, that is, where there is a sharp climate with characteristic lower temperatures.
For planting in the fall prepare the hole and in April begin planting seedlings. During the spring they manage to get stronger and take root.
The most important thing before planting is to prepare the ground. It is usually prepared in advance, dig and fertilize. Digging landing pit.
This is done so that she has time to get enough oxygen, wind down and heat up. It is recommended in the preparation of planting pits to make it humus and mineral fertilizers.
How to prepare a sapling?
Before planting a seedling, it is necessary to carefully examine its root system for the presence of broken, dried and rotted roots. If any, they need to be trimmed with shears.
The day before planting, the seedling must be kept in water for about 2 hours, and just before planting, the roots are moistened with a solution of thick soil clay talker or a solution of clay and mullein (1 part clay, 2 mullein and 5-7 parts water).
The soil should be saturated with minerals, loose, allowing air to penetrate deep into the ground and have good moisture permeability. Sandy, medium loamy soils and thick sierozem are preferred.
Cherries do not tolerate sandy, clay and stony soils, as well as stagnant water. It is quite demanding of moisture, but excessive waterlogging of the soil will lead to the gradual death of the tree. It reacts very poorly to the acidity and overgrowth of the soil, so the soil should be with a neutral ph.
Planting in open ground
The algorithm for planting seedlings in open ground is as follows:
- A stake will be installed in the prepared pit, which will serve as a support.
- The seedling is placed in a pit, the roots are gently spread on fertile soil (earth + compost or manure), the root system is also sprinkled with soil on top.
- The position of the root collar is checked, it should be 4-5 cm above the surface.
- Next, the root system is filled with soil with a thickness of 10-15 cm and poured over with a bucket of water.
- The pit is filled up completely and compacted.
- At the end of the soil in the hole, it is desirable zamulchirovat compost or sawdust.
How to care for cherries after planting?
Post-hospital care includes the following main activities:
- regular watering
- whitening trunks
- disease prevention
- pest protection
- pruning of root growth,
- fertilizer application
- attracting pollinators.
How to feed a sweet cherry?
There are two main seasons for feeding: spring and autumn. In the spring, organic fertilizers are mainly applied, and in the fall - mineral fertilizers.
In the spring used liquid means or dry in combination with irrigation. Top dressing is done before flowering by spraying with urea or ammonium nitrate.
In the period of flowering solution of mullein and ash. 2 weeks after feeding, potash phosphate fertilizer is used.
Preparing for the winter
As soon as the harvest has been harvested, it is necessary to prepare for overwintering. To do this, you must perform several relevant steps:
- to feed, dig the soil in the hole,
- plenty of water,
- cover the soil around the trunk with sawdust or peat,
- clean the bark of diseased areas
- drive pegs in height equal to the height of the tree,
- bind the crown so that it turns out to be a “dome”
- Cover the plant with a covering material so that there is space for air circulation.
- peat or earth is piled on top of a covering,
- and after the snow falls, it is necessary to additionally scrape the snow onto the base of the covering.
Trimming and shaping
In order for the sweet cherry to grow and be rich in fruit, timely pruning must be done. As a rule, in the first year after planting, “formative” pruning is carried out due to which the skeleton of the tree is formed.
In the process of care, regular pruning of dry, broken, infected with a disease or just extra shoots is carried out.
Adult tree transplant
Any fruit trees are transplanted before the buds swell. It is necessary to dig a hole in advance, about 1.5-2 weeks before the tree is being transplanted, so that it can wear out and warm up.
There are two ways to transplant:
- With an open root system,
- With a lump of soil.
In order not to disturb the root system, it is recommended to use the method of planting with a clod of soil.
In order not to damage the roots, you need to know how deep to dig, and this depends on the age of the tree. The roots of 5-6 summer trees, as a rule, are 1-2 m deep, respectively, the diameter of digging will be at least 0.5 m and the same depth. If it is older or you do not know the age, then the depth should be 0.8 m.
How to plant a sweet cherry from a stone?
This method of planting is mainly used by gardeners to grow stock, but some manage to grow quite a decent fruit-bearing plant. It is possible to plant stones both in the fall, and in the summer.
To grow a sweet cherry from a stone:
- Select the large, smooth berries you like.
- Подготовить заранее горшок, он может быть, как пластиковым, так и керамическим, емкостью не менее 0,5 литра.
- Drainage should be filled into the pot, about 3-4 cm, then pour a special nutrient primer intended for fruit crops.
- Remove the seeds from the fruit, dry in a dark place and plant in flower pots in a moist, slightly compacted soil to a depth of 1 cm and sprinkle with soil again. Be sure to moisten the soil with water after planting.
How to instill cherries?
In order for the graft to successfully merge with the stock, it is necessary to inculcate in early spring, when active sap flow is observed. Cuttings for grafting are prepared in advance - in the fall.
To instill cherries by the following methods:
- Behind the bark - the method is used when the stock and the graft have different diameters. A 5 cm cut is made with a very sharp knife on the bark, the bark is removed and the graft is inserted. The vaccination is wrapped with tape or tape and smeared with pitch.
- In the split - is used if the stock is several times larger than the graft. On the stock is done with a knife or an hatchet (depending on the diameter of the branch) split and a cutting is inserted, the base of which was previously cut by a double wedge. If a lot of space in the split, you can simultaneously plant several cuttings.
- Improved copulation - applied when the stock and graft are the same in diameter. On the handle and stock with a sharp knife is made oblique cut. Then with a knife we make original shutters, which will help the handle to fit snugly to the stock. We put in the cutting, it primatyvaet well, grease the pitch.
Sweet cherry varieties for planting
Cherry varieties are divided into early, mid-ripening, late.
Among the representatives of the early varieties distinguish:
Mid-season varieties include:
Of the later varieties most common:
- "Bryansk Pink",
- "Leningrad black"
- Question No1. “At what distance is it best to plant a pollinator tree?”
Answer: For successful mutual pollination, the cherry tree must be planted no further than 30 m from the “pollinator” tree. The optimal distances from each other are: 3 m - cherries, 4 m - cherries and plums.
- Question No2. “When does sweet cherry fruit after planting?”
Answer: Terms of fruiting will depend on the age of the seedling. But an average of five years after landing.
- Question No3. “When is the first pruning done after planting a tree?”
Answer: In the first year, in independence, a sapling was planted in autumn or in spring. Pruning in this case is needed to balance the roots damaged during digging, and aboveground parts.
When is it better to plant a sweet cherry in spring or autumn?
The success of planting is largely determined by seasonality. At the same time, the opinions of experienced specialists diverge and no one can say for sure when it is better to plant a sweet cherry. But, as a rule, the choice of a suitable time of the year is connected with the period of rest of the plant - it is then that an excellent survival of the tree can be achieved.
In turn, the optimal seasons for planting may vary in a particular area. Meanwhile, the rooting of young saplings in the summer period, undoubtedly, is doomed to failure, the only exception can be the planting of seedlings with closed roots in a container.
The plant is awake at this time of year, and so that the planting procedure does not become irreversible stress for future trees, planting should be done in the sleepy phase of the growth of sweet cherries. The following reasons may adversely affect the outcome and the final survival rate of the young stock:
- soil change,
- uncomfortable location of groundwater
- insufficient lighting,
- unsuitable fertilizers.
Meanwhile, it is preferable to plant a sweet cherry in the fall or spring. For example, in the southern regions of the middle zone (in Ukraine, in the coastal regions of Russia, Crimea), garden works are more often carried out before the onset of cold weather.
In the northern regions, in the Urals and in Siberia, the planting of this berry crop is, on the contrary, most gardeners do in the middle of spring, closer to May: it is then that the risk of severe frost returning is small and the plant will be given maximum time in summer to take root and settle down.
In the Moscow region and the central part of Russia, in Belarus, you can land in any demi-season period. However, practice says that in the fall, sweet cherry is better cultivated on the soil.
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Through the flow of cold air can harm the growing tree. To do this, planting cherries is better when surrounded by mature trees. Cherry is considered the best neighbor for sweet cherries. At the same time, it is better to stay away from pears and apple trees. Under the cherry it is undesirable to plant anything at all, especially vegetables or strawberries.
It should not be forgotten about the main rule of planting fruit plants with each other: less than 1.5 meters from each other, it is not recommended to plant them.
In conclusion, it is worth saying a few words about the care of cherries. After planting, you should regularly inspect the trunk and branches. Detected pests or signs of the disease especially harm the culture in the early years of growth. Timely pruning during planting will be an effective precautionary measure to save the young. As a rule, the sapling is cut exactly in half of its original size.
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Characteristics of sweet cherry
Sweet cherry is considered the closest relative of the cherry. Many people confuse cherries and cherries, only in 1491 botanists determined that they were different cultures, although they belong to the same family, Cherry is often called “bird cherry”, and in Europe even the famous Chekhov play is called “Cherry Orchard”.
The tree can reach up to 20-30 meters in height, blooms profusely, and the flowers appear before the leaves. Breeders bred and dwarf varieties up to 3-5 meters, which provides a more convenient collection of fruits.
Coloring of fruits depending on the variety is different: yellow, pink, dark red. As the pulp is divided into 2 types: bigarro - with firm pulp and late ripening and gini - with soft pulp and early fruiting. The cherry is samobesplodna, for pollination it is necessary to plant alongside 2-3 of its other varieties. Especially good for pollination cherry Iput.
The lifespan of a tree is about 100 years, but most often it is used for 15-20 years. Sweet cherries can produce up to 25-30 kg of fruit from a tree in a short period of fruiting. In the world there are 4,000 varieties of sweet cherries, of which 46 varieties are created by breeders from Russia.
When to plant: fall or spring?
It is believed that sweet cherry is a tree that is more suitable for the south of the country, as it is very vulnerable to lower temperatures and freezes during the first permanent frosts, but these days, thanks to the efforts of breeders, the cultivation of sweet cherries has become possible in other regions.
Cherry varieties have been created, which correspond to different climatic conditions, are resistant to freezing and start fruiting at the right time for the region.
In the southern regions, cherries are planted mainly in the fall during the period of leaf fall. Spring planting threatens the plant with high temperatures in March - April, dry winds and a large number of pests. In the autumn, the tree manages to take root well and by the spring it is already a strong plant, especially since there is no strong frost in the south in winter.
For the central regions of Russia, Siberia, and the Far East, planting cherries in the spring is recommended in order for the seedling to grow strong and rooted during the summer period. Spring for planting a tree has another undeniable advantage: during the whole summer time the gardener watches the development and condition of the plant daily. He will be able to quickly apply the necessary measures in case of drought or an excess of moisture, attack by pests or in case of a plant disease.
A mistake for many sweet cherry lovers is the choice of variety, which is not regionalized for this region. Gardeners are seduced by beautiful descriptions, bright labels and do not take into account the survival of seedlings, the impact of climate and the biological features of cherries.
This is especially true for areas with harsh and long winters. Moreover, when choosing a variety, it is necessary to take into account not only freezing winter temperatures, temperature variations in the spring are very dangerous - return frosts.
For the saplings to die, it is sufficient to lower the temperature after a thaw to -2 ° C, if it does not have a high level of winter hardiness. Experienced gardeners in this situation additionally use smoke from the fires.
The yield may also be affected by the soil composition of the region, the duration and intensity of daylight, the presence of stable cold winds.
The result is small yields, freezing, low taste, and sometimes the death of the plant.
Recommendations for choosing varieties for different regions:
For the Leningrad Region and the North-Western regions, special zoned varieties have not been bred, gardeners successfully grow the most frost-resistant and unpretentious varieties destined for the Urals and Siberia.
Two varieties are being developed for this region - Seda and Yurga. A serious disadvantage for the cultivation of sweet cherries in these areas are cold winds from the Baltic Sea.
When planting in the fall, the ground is completely dug up in 2-3 weeks before planting, adding humus at the rate of 10 kg per 1 square meter. meter.
When planting in the spring, the land is prepared in the fall, digging it and adding fertilizer. Many gardeners and planting pits are prepared in the fall.
If for planting cherries on your site inappropriate land, it can be corrected. Sand is added to clay soil, and clay is added to sand soil. Additionally, make a soil mixture, which is sold in specialized stores, manure or humus. The earth is being dug up and after a few years it is ready for planting cherries.
Sweet cherry is very demanding on the light regime. It feels good near the stunted trees, forming a crown in the middle and upper tier for better absorption of sunlight.
The shading of sweet cherries in orchards with tall fruit trees leads to the fact that the fruiting switches to the upper branches, the fruits shrink and their number decreases. For sweet cherry is better to choose an open sunny and warm place. For better illumination of the crown, use annual pruning.
- Sweet air is contraindicated for high air humidity, fruits begin to crack and rot, but excessive dryness causes leaves to fall off.
- Sweet cherry does not tolerate the neighborhood with walnuts, rowan, pear, peach, black currant. Apple, plum and cherry trees are recommended as neighbors.
- The distance between the trees should be at least 4-5 meters, due to the highly developed root system of surface occurrence.
- Once in 5 years, the soil around the cherries should be lime.
- Do not buy 3-year-old saplings, they practically do not take root.
When planting cherries need to take care of protection from birds. Otherwise, most of the berries will be pecked and not suitable for use. To do this, many on the tree hang shiny, rustling foil tapes or old computer disks. As a rule, this does not help, therefore, it is necessary to prepare a mesh mesh (50x50 mm) in advance and throw it on the cherry tree during the ripening period of the fruit.
Landing pit preparation
It is recommended to plant a sweet cherry in spring at a constant temperature of + 5 ° C, an additional advantage is that for this period the soil still retains a sufficient amount of moisture.
Early planting dates can destroy the seedling due to recurrent frosts, and being late can lead to a long survival rate due to high sun activity. The best time is mid-April, until the buds begin to awaken.
- The pit for planting cherries should be 80 cm wide by 100 cm and 70 cm deep, the narrowing of the pit downwards is unacceptable. With such pit sizes, the root system should be placed in it freely. Nearby a stake is driven in - a support up to 80 cm high for dressing a seedling.
- The landing pit is filled with 1/3 depth of the nutrient mixture: 2 parts of topsoil, 1 part of humus, 1 part of peat, 100g of superphosphate, 50g of potassium sulphide,
You can also use a different composition for the mixture: 2 compost buckets, 1 kg of ash and 400 g of superphosphate. Nitrogen fertilizers do not add to avoid root burn
The pit is filled with the mixture for 10 days before planting, mix, the composition should settle.
Seedling preparation before planting
The further development of the plant depends on the selection and preparation of the seedling:
- The seedling must be grafted, have a strong trunk, prevailing over the side branches.
- It is not necessary to buy a seedling with a forked stem; under the weight of fruits in the future they may break.
- It should have a developed root system without defects, with roots 15 cm long. If the root section is brown, this is a sign of frostbite.
- The day before planting, the seedling is placed in a bucket of water to activate the root system.
- Before planting a seedling in a planting hole, cut off the damaged roots.
- Pruned long roots, as the root system must fully enter the planting pit.
- Before planting, remove all the leaves, otherwise the seedling will dehydrate.
Step-by-step landing instructions
- Pour a bucket of water into the landing pit.
- Place the seedling in the pit deepening next to the support; the neck of the seedling should be 4-5 cm above ground level.
- Cover the roots with earth.
- Seal the top layer and fix the seedling to the support with a soft tape. Loop "eight" make free, so as not to damage the bark of the tree.
- Along the perimeter of the pit make a circular depression for watering.
- Pour 2 buckets of water, make sure that after the sedimentation of the soil root neck was at ground level.
- Trim the main trunk to 80 cm, and side branches - up to 50 cm. This is necessary for the formation of the correct crown.
- Planting cherries preferably in cloudy weather.
- Saplings aged 1-2 years best take root.
- To attract bees, mustard is planted next to the cherry tree; experienced gardeners spray the tree with a solution of water and honey.
Further care for cherries
Cherry requires watering 3 times per season: in May during the period of green mass growth, before flowering, in June, when the fruits begin to ripen even before winter.
20 days before harvesting, watering is stopped, otherwise the fruit will crack and rot. Watering is carried out to a depth of 40 cm, and the prewinter - up to 70-80 cm. In dry weather, the watering frequency is increased. In the second half of the summer, watering is not recommended, since it reduces the frost resistance of the tree.
Fertilizing in the first year should not be made, since all the necessary substances the seedling received during planting. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied for 2 years of tree growth. In the spring, around the perimeter of the wheel circle, 120 g of urea should be poured, encased in moist soil.
In the fourth year of growth, the roots will go beyond the trunk circle, therefore fertilizers are applied further from the stem to the furrows made. In the spring, 120-200 g of urea is placed in a moist ground, at the end of summer - 400 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulphate.
In the second year, the width of the tree trunk circle is increased to 1 meter, and 50 cm is added every year. Cherry well perceives additional feedings with ash.
Throughout the summer period, until the fall, weeding and loosening of the tree trunk are necessary, since cherries do not tolerate proximity to weeds.
Crown formation, trimming
Sweet cherry needs obligatory annual pruning, otherwise there will be no good harvest. It can be of 3 types: forming - in the spring, sanitary - in the autumn and rejuvenating when the tree ages. For all options mandatory removal of branches 40 cm from the ground. When pruning places cuts treated garden pitch.
Forming pruning creates the right crown, especially for young cherries. Prior to bud break, the main trunk and upper branches are shortened by 1/3 of the length, the branches that grow inward are cut out, and only those that grow from the side shoots that grow at an angle of 45 degrees to the trunk are cut.
Such pruning is called cupped. It provides good lighting for the tree, stimulates fruiting and simplifies harvesting.
Sanitary pruning involves the removal of dried, broken, diseased branches.
Rejuvenating pruning helps the sweet cherry to return yields
Diseases of the young sweet cherry
Sweet cherry is sufficiently resistant to diseases, but there are exceptions. Verticillosis is a fungal disease for many stone fruit crops, it is also dangerous for sweet cherries.
First, the bark bursts, then the flowers fall, the leaves turn yellow and gum appears on the trunk. You can use drugs such as Polychrome, Fundazol, Topsin. Clean and crack the cracks with clay with 2% of blue vitriol. But, as a rule, the treatment is ineffective, the tree dies within a year.
During the period of cold and rainy spring bacteriosis of a sweet cherry (tree cancer) is possible. It is not possible to save the sweet cherry; scientists have not yet created a remedy against this disease. The tree must be cut down and burned.
Terms of planting cherry
There are two possible options for planting cherry - spring and autumn. The first option is the most preferred and common, it is suitable for all growing regions. The time for planting should be chosen in early spring, when sap flow has not yet begun and the buds have not swelled. And the snow should already go, and the earth to warm up to + 5—10 ° C. Это время хорошо тем, что природа начинает просыпаться и вместе с ней проснутся и высаженные растения. Они тут же начнут укореняться и тронутся в рост. Приживаемость саженцев в это время максимальная. А к осени черешня уже окончательно приживётся на новом месте, окрепнет, наберётся сил и сможет благополучно пережить свою первую зиму.
In the southern regions with warm winters and a long growing season, the option of autumn planting is possible. In this case, the time must be chosen so that before the onset of cold weather remains 3-4 weeks, during which the seedling will have time to take root. This option has one advantage - in areas with a dry and hot summer, seedlings planted in the spring have to deal with drought and heat, which is excluded during autumn planting.
Where to plant a sweet cherry on the plot
For planting cherries need a well-lit and ventilated place. At the same time, it should be protected from the cold northern winds in the form of thick trees, walls of buildings or buildings, fences. It is better to choose a small south or southwest slope, on which water will not stagnate. The bogging and close bedding of groundwater (less than 2.5 meters) is not allowed.
What kind of soil loves cherries
For sweet cherries grown in arid regions, fertile loams are suitable, and in areas with sufficient or excessive moisture, sandy loams are suitable. At the same time the soil should have a loose, well-drained structure. The optimum level of acidity is pH 6.7–7.1, but on chernozems with a lot of humus, plants can take out the carbonate content (increased alkaline reaction) of the soil. In this case, the reaction is allowed to pH 8.0.
How to plant a sweet cherry, if close groundwater
There is no economically sound way to grow sweet cherries in areas with close groundwater storage. On soaking soils, it is imperative to carry out drainage by draining gutters that drain excess moisture out of the site. The pleasure is not cheap and time consuming.
Land drainage is a costly undertaking
In cases where the occurrence of groundwater is in the range of 1-1.5 m, it is possible to apply the planting of cherries on a hill. It is poured over a landing pit 0.5-1.2 meters high and 2-2.5 meters in diameter.
At what distance to plant cherries from each other
The planting interval depends solely on the size of the crown. And she, in turn, depends on the varieties of cherries and rootstock, which was vaccinated. On average, the diameter of the crown of cherries is usually 2.5-4 meters. Based on the characteristics of the cultivated variety, the distance between the trees in a row is assumed to be equal to the diameter of the crown, and the distance between the rows is increased by 1-1.5 meters. That is, when the diameter of the crown is 3 meters, the landing pattern is chosen 3 x 4 meters.
What trees can plant sweet cherry
It is best to group plants according to the principle - similar with similar ones. Cherries preferably planted in a group with other cherries and cherries. Seed seeds - apple and pear - usually oppress the sweet cherry, so you should stay away from them. And you should avoid the neighborhood with sea buckthorn - in general, it is a bad neighbor for any crops. Apricot has a rather extensive and powerful root system, which will actively deal with the same powerful root cherry system. Therefore, it is worth spreading their neighborhood to 5-6 meters. Plum and cherry plum will not damage the sweet cherry, but she herself will oppress them.
Where to plant a samobblednyy sweet cherry
Self-infertile varieties of cherries require the presence of pollinating plants within a radius of 50-100 meters. As a rule, these should be cherries of other varieties whose flowering period coincides with the flowering period of the tree to be planted. In addition, according to some sources, a good cherry pollinator is Lubskaya cherry. This should be considered when planting cherries. If there are no such plants nearby, and you want to plant a sweet cherry, moreover it is a self-fruitful one, then you will have to plant a sweet pollinator variety at the same time.
How to keep a sweet cherry seedling before planting in the spring
Save the seedlings purchased in the fall can be either in the cellar (basement), or prikannymi to the ground. In the first case, you need to have a room with a constant air temperature from 0 to +5 ° C. The roots of the seedling are dipped into a moth and clay talker, and then placed in a moist environment (sand, sawdust, moss).
In the second case, you need to dig a hole in the garden with a depth of 20-30 centimeters, at the bottom of which a small layer of sand is poured. Seedlings are placed in a pit obliquely and covered with sand by roots. Water is watered and almost completely covered with earth, leaving only the top not covered. She is covered with spruce leaves to avoid damage to hares.
Until spring, seedlings can be saved by prikopop them in the garden
Step-by-step instruction of planting cherry
Now everything is ready for a successful planting of cherries - a landing pit at the chosen place and a sapling of the variety that you like, placed in storage. In early spring, with the onset of the optimal period, they start planting:
- On the day of planting, take a sapling from the basement or prikopa and inspect it. If damaged or frozen roots are found, they are pruned with shears. If damaged or frozen roots are found, they are pruned with shears
- Soak the roots for several hours in a solution of growth stimulant (Appin, Heteroauxin, Cornevin). Soak the roots for several hours in a solution of growth stimulator
- They open the planting hole and make a hole in it according to the size of the root system of the seedling.
- In the center of the hole a small mound is formed, and a wooden or metal stake is driven in somewhat to the side of the center. Its height above the soil level should be in the range of 80-120 centimeters. You can use two cola for better fixation of the plant.
- The seedling is lowered into the hole, having the root collar at the top of the knoll, and spread the roots on the slopes. The seedling is lowered into the hole, having the root neck at the top of the hill, and spread the roots on the slopes
- At this stage it is better to use the help of the second person. One will keep the plant, and the second - to fill the hole with earth. This should be done in layers with compaction of each layer. It is necessary to ensure that as a result the root neck of the seedling is at the level of the soil. To do this, it is convenient to apply a rail or a bar. It is convenient to carry out the control of the level of the root collar when planting cherries using a lath or bar
- The central conductor of the seedling is cut to a height of 60–80 centimeters, and the twigs (if any) are shortened to 20–30 centimeters. After planting the seedling pruned
- Tie stalk to the stake with elastic material in the form of "figure eight", without crushing the bark. And also for these purposes, you can use special plastic clamps. For garters sapling plastic collars can be used
- They form a near-stem circle by collecting an earthen roller along the diameter of the landing pit.
- Liberally watered plant up to three times moisture absorption. This is necessary to ensure good soil contact with the roots and to eliminate airborne sinuses in the root zone. Water the plant abundantly up to three times moisture absorption
- The next day, the soil is loosened and mulched, using for this purpose humus, compost, rotted sawdust, hay, etc. After watering, the soil is loosened and mulched.
How to plant grafted sweet cherry
The grafted sweet cherry is planted according to the same rules as its own. The only feature is that the vaccination site is sometimes located too low. In this case, when planting you need to ensure that it is not turned into the soil. It is desirable that the vaccination site is located 5-7 centimeters above ground level. In regions with a high level of snow cover, it is better to purchase seedlings grafted at a height of 0.5-1.0 m.
It is desirable that the vaccination site is located at least 5-7 centimeters above ground level.
How to plant a sweet cherry in a container
Nowadays, plant saplings with a closed root system (ZKS) are increasingly being sold. Usually they are grown in containers or buckets and sold with them. This method has obvious advantages:
- When transplanting such a seedling, the root system is not injured and its survival rate is 100%.
- Saplings with ZKS can have an age when transplanting 3-4 years, which reduces the period of sweet cherry fruit entry from the moment of planting.
- You can plant such plants at any time from early spring to autumn.
The planting pit for sweet cherry with ZKS prepares by the same rules, as for usual saplings, rules of landing also do not change. Features of landing include the following points:
- In the landing pit do not form a mound, because the seedling is transplanted from the container transshipment with a clod of earth.
- And also such a plant will not need a garter pin, since a large clod of earth on its roots reliably holds a sweet cherry. A large lump of earth on the roots reliably holds a sweet cherry
How to plant a sweet bone
Of course, the sweet cherry can be grown from the stone. Question: Why? It is known that with this method of cultivation the varietal features of the original are not preserved. No matter how tasty and large the berry was, the bone of which was used for growing, the result is likely to be one. After long labors the wilderness with small berries of mediocre taste will grow. Yes, such a plant will have endurance, unpretentiousness in care, frost resistance, immunity to diseases and pests. But it can be used only as a stock for grafting sweet cherry or for decorative planting of trees. Given this, we describe the process of planting cherries ossicle briefly:
- From the cherries growing in the area, collect the necessary amount (with a reserve) of seeds from fully ripe berries.
- The bones are free of pulp, washed and dried. Bones free from pulp, washed and dried
- Placed in a paper bag and stored until December at room temperature.
- In December, the bones are soaked for three to four days in the water, changing it daily.
- Place in a container with a wet substrate (sand, sawdust, sphagnum moss).
- The container is set in the refrigerator for three months for stratification of seeds.
- In early spring, the container is carried out on the street and covered with snow.
- After the shells cracked and begin to germinate, they are planted in individual pots or trays to a depth of 1.5-2 centimeters. After the shells cracked and begin to germinate, they are planted in individual pots.
- Shoots usually appear in 25-30 days. When they reach a height of 10-15 centimeters, they dive in a larger tank. When the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 centimeters, they dive in a larger tank
- With regular moisture and loosening by the fall, they will grow to 25-30 centimeters.
- After that, not less than a month before the onset of frost, the seedlings obtained are planted in a permanent place, observing the rules described above. At the same time, it is necessary to take care of the protection of plants from frost and rodents, equipping for them shelters from plastic bottles with a cropped bottom. We need to take care of the protection of plants from frost and rodents, equipping for them shelters from plastic bottles with a cropped bottom
Rooting of sweet cherry cuttings
As a rule, the sweet cherry is propagated by green cuttings. This process is simple, but somewhat laborious. It consists in the following:
- Procurement of cuttings. The best time for this comes when the young shoots reach a great length and begin to woody, but they themselves are still quite flexible. In central Russia this falls on June 10–30. So:
- Early in the morning, while it is cool, they choose side shoots of medium degree of growth, located on the young increments of the last year and growing in a well-lit part of the crown. Cut them with shears.
- From these twigs, cuttings of 8-10 centimeters long are cut. Each of them should have 3-4 buds and a leaf. In this case, the lower cut must be in one or two centimeters from the first kidney.
- One or two lower sheets are cut out completely, and the upper ones are cut to 50-60% to reduce the evaporation area. One or two lower sheets are cut out completely, and the upper ones are cut to 50-60% to reduce the evaporation area
- Harvested cuttings are placed with the lower end into the solution of the root formation stimulator (Kornevin, Heteroauxin) to a depth of 2.5-3 centimeters. In this solution, the cuttings should stand until the evening.
- For rooting cuttings need to prepare a container with nutrient soil. Initially, a moisture-absorbing sheet of soil is deposited on the bottom with a layer of 10 to 12 centimeters. Top poured on the substrate of the peat-sand mixture of a layer of 3-5 cm.
- In the evening, they take out the cuttings from the solution and stick them into the prepared soil to a depth of 3-4 centimeters so that the lower kidney is located in the substrate. The distance between the cuttings in a row should be within 5-7 centimeters, and between rows - 8-12 centimeters. Rooting cuttings are cut from side shoots located on the last year’s young growth
- Moisturize the soil with a spray bottle.
- The container is placed in a well-lit greenhouse, which must be maintained at a high level of humidity. The best rooting temperature is 23–30 ° C. The container with the cuttings is placed in a well-lit greenhouse, which must maintain a high level of humidity
- Further care is in daily ventilation and double watering of the sprayer. And also, if necessary, the soil should be carefully loosened.
- In about a month, the plants will already have quite good roots and should be seated. You can land immediately on a permanent place, but it is better to transplant in containers or buckets, and the landing postponed until spring. In this case, such seedlings will need to be placed in the greenhouse for the winter or equip for them a temporary shelter from frost.
Cherries, like cherries, are massively grown throughout Ukraine, especially in its southern regions. A large number of zoned varieties are bred here (mainly at the Melitopol Experimental Gardening Station):
- Melitopol black
- Melitopol Early
- Valery Chkalov,
- Space and many others.
Planting is carried out both in spring and autumn (in the southern regions) according to standard rules.
For this region, only two varieties of cherries are noted in the State Register - Early Pink of average maturity and Diber Black of average maturity. But gardeners of Volgograd and the region do not look into the State Register and successfully grow many of its other varieties:
- Donetsk beauty,
- Yaroslavna and others.
The term for planting cherries in Volgograd is early spring.
In the Leningrad region
Bred for this area, the Leningrad black variety was never included in the State Register. There are no other varieties in it for the North-West. Gardeners of the Leningrad region judging by the reviews grow the following varieties:
Friends, help advice. What varieties of sweet cherries will grow and bear fruit in the Leningrad region? Preferably different 2-3 grades. The eye fell on the Leningrad black and Bryansk pink.
Martini SPb, Villa in Apraksin, Leningrad region
Quote (Klymych) Leningradskaya black because of the name should, at least normally grow.
Klymych, Cottage in Apraksin, Leningrad region
Klimych, yes we are neighbors! And what do you grow from trees and shrubs in general? Maybe for something there is no sense and power to spend?
Martini SPb, Villa in Apraksin, Leningrad region
Fatezh, Chermashnaya, Iput, Revna.
NadezhdaS, Cottage in Len. region, south
The climate of the Urals is characterized by instability of weather conditions and sudden changes in temperature. In such conditions, the cultivation of the southern, thermophilic culture, which is the sweet cherry tree, is fraught with considerable difficulties. But there is an experience of successful cultivation of some winter-hardy varieties zoned in the Central region. The most promising were the Iput and Northern varieties of the Belarusian Institute of Horticulture. The experienced gardener Vladimir Pitelin in 2012 wrote about the abundant yield of Fatezh varieties (selection of the Moscow Institute of Fruit Production) and 2–7-37 in the conditions of the Southern Urals. According to him, planting cherries in the Urals does not differ from planting in the middle lane. In this case, all the rules set forth above. Only they must be carried out more scrupulously - the Ural climate does not forgive mistakes. He also recommends the use of seedlings on a dwarf rootstock VSP-2 for the cultivation of cherries in both shtambovoy and stanantsevoy form.
Video: sweet cherry in the gardens of the Southern Urals
In Siberia, there are also enthusiasts who test cherries in local conditions. As a rule, these are the same varieties that are grown in the Southern Urals. Dwarf cherries winter especially well in places where the snow cover is of considerable thickness and covers the trees completely. Stlanting formirovka in Siberia is also successfully used. Landing rules are standard.
Stlanting cherry formation is used in the Urals and Siberia.
When you can replant the cherry in spring or autumn
Most gardeners recommend doing this in early spring, especially in cold climates. This is explained by the fact that, transplanted in the autumn, the tree will not have time to settle well and will go into the winter weakened. In places with mild winters and hot summers, it is recommended that transplantation be carried out in the fall, since the plant is more likely to dry out in the summer than freeze in the winter. In any case, preparing for transplantation, it is better to rely on the experience of local gardeners and specialists.
Step-by-step instruction on transplantation
In this instruction we will describe the process of spring planting a transplanted tree:
- Прежде всего молодое дерево нужно выкопать из земли. Это делают осенью, так как весной погодные условия могут не позволить выкопать растение до наступления сокодвижения. For this:
- Если почва сухая, то за день до выкопки её следует полить, чтобы она размягчилась.
- Вокруг дерева намечают окружность диаметром, равным предполагаемому диаметру корневой системы. Можно это сделать при помощи бечёвки, привязанной к стволу, и какой-нибудь палочки.
- Shovel dig a groove around the plant, focusing on the traced circle. For transplanting digging gusset around the plant, focusing on the traced circle
- Remove the plant from the pit, trying not to destroy the earthen ball on the roots.
- They are added in the garden for winter storage.
- The second step - preparation of the landing pit - is also carried out in the fall according to the algorithm described earlier.
- In early spring, they take a sapling from a prikop and plant it in compliance with the rules outlined above.
- Pruned crown, leaving no more than five skeletal branches, which are shortened by 30%. This is done to ensure that the plant does not spend strength on the growth of shoots, but primarily directed them to the development of the root system. With the same purpose, remove all flowers, avoiding fruiting in the first year after transplantation.
How to transplant adult cherry tree
If necessary, an adult tree can be transplanted, although experts believe that sweet cherry at the age of more than seven years will not tolerate this. In this case, you can try an interesting method, which is as follows:
- In late September, a circle is marked around the tree, as is the case with a young tree. Its diameter should be such as to capture as many roots as possible, but at the same time, the weight of the extracted part was within reasonable limits.
- A sharp shovel with a flat blade cuts the roots into half of the marked circle.
- Dig a trench along this half of the circumference of the depth on the bayonet of the shovel.
- In the lower part of the trench, the roots are cut even deeper into the shovel bayonet.
- Fall asleep trench and pour water.
- The tree continues to feed at the expense of the second half of the roots, which remained intact. In the first half at this time new roots will be formed, which will fill the inner space of the root system.
- After 3-4 weeks, the same procedure is carried out with the second half of the roots. They are incised, digged, once again incised, instilled. Liberally watered for another two weeks and leave the tree until spring.
- At the same time it is worth taking care of the planting pit for the transplanted plant.
- In early spring, as soon as the weather permits, the plant is dug out of the ground with a lump of young roots and transplanted to a new place.
Unfortunately, there are no illustrations of this method, but there is a great video worth watching.
The subsequent transplanting of sweet cherries, including how to transplant the old tree
Subsequent transplantation of cherry is likely to be a useless exercise. It is unlikely that the tree will transfer this procedure again. Therefore, the choice of site for landing should be approached responsibly, so as not to have further problems. Theoretically, the possibility of transplant remains. But you need to do this with a big lump of land, using for this special equipment - an excavator, a crane, a truck for transportation. And even if you do not take into account significant material costs, the success of the event is not guaranteed. As the specified equipment can drive up far not to any place.
It is unlikely that the gardener will use special equipment for transplanting old sweet cherries.
I have never caught a normal tree. Replanted it three times, more precisely, transplanted three cherries to everyone for 7 years at a time. Although, maybe, of course, I screwed up something.
Sweet cherry is very capricious in the sense of transplantation in adulthood (and not only transplants). My friend didn't survive the tree either.
The rules of planting, breeding and transplanting sweet cherries are not really so complicated that a novice gardener cannot understand them. With due diligence and favorable conditions for culture, the result of the labor invested will certainly not upset.
Adding an article to a new collection
You do not know how to plant a sweet cherry? Use these tips - and you will be able to acquire a fruiting tree.
Cherries can be grown out of a stone, but this is a very long process, and such a tree will most likely not retain its varietal qualities - the berries will be small and sour. If you want to get a harvest of tasty and juicy fruits as quickly as possible, get in a specialized nursery one or two years old grafted seedling.
When is it better to plant a sweet cherry?
In regions with an unstable climate, sweet cherry is planted in early spring before the buds swell (most often in April), and in the south it can be planted in the fall. At the same time, the hole for the seedling is prepared in advance - in the fall (even during spring planting).
In the northern regions, it is not recommended to plant sweet cherries in the autumn, as during the first frosts annual gains may freeze. Then the seedling risks dying.
Place for planting cherries
Cherries "lodge" in a sunny and well-protected place from the wind. The soil should be fertile, loose and moisture permeable. For example, loamy or loamy sandy soil is suitable, but heavy, clayey, peaty and deeply sandy land is unsuitable.
Sweet cherry grows well and bears fruit in areas located on the south side
In the fall, planting pits 80 cm deep and 100 cm wide are dug. At a distance of 3-5 m, several more holes are being dug for seedlings of other varieties of sweet cherries with the same flowering period. These plants will act as pollinators.
Secrets of proper planting cherries
In the autumn, 1/3 of the landing pits are filled with prepared soil mixture from fertile land (2 buckets) and humus (10 kg). In this form they are left before planting cherry seedlings.
Drainage should be poured at the bottom of the pit (especially when grown on moist soil), because the cherry does not tolerate stagnant water.
In early spring, potassium sulphate (60 g) and superphosphate (100-120 g) are added to the pit and mixed thoroughly with the soil. Then a support column for a seedling is installed in the hole and a mound of fertile soil without fertilizers is poured in the center.
A sapling is placed on the soil mound, gently straightening its roots. Then gradually pour the ground, slightly tamping, so that the root neck of the seedling (the place where the roots go into the stem) was 3-5 cm above the soil level. After that, the plant is watered abundantly (spend 10 liters of water) and mulch with peat, humus or fallen leaves.
When planting a sweet cherry seedling, the root neck cannot be buried
When water is absorbed, and the earth will settle a little, the seedling of the "eight" is tied to a peg. The loop is made moderately free, so that later the binding material does not squeeze the wood.
Care for a young sapling of sweet cherry
Immediately after planting, the sapling is pruned at a height of 1 m. In the next season, lateral shoots will begin to develop from dormant buds, where a harvest will be formed in the future. In the fall of the second year, only 3-4 well-located and well-developed skeletal branches are left on the tree and pruned them into 1/3. And the central conductor (the longest vertical shoot) is cut at a height of 80-100 cm from the first (lowest) tier of branches. Thus, the second tier of branches is laid. Subsequently, 2-3 well-developed and successfully located shoots are left on it. The remaining branches are cut, and the center conductor is shortened again at a height of 80-100 cm from the branches of the second tier. A year later, lay the third (last) tier, consisting of 1-2 branches.
Cherry Forming Scheme
Cherries do not tolerate neighborhoods with weeds, so until late autumn the tree trunks weed regularly. It is also important to provide the plant with timely, but moderate watering, since even a short-term stagnant moisture can destroy the immature seedling.
In order for the sapling to safely winter, in September it needs to be fed with phosphate fertilizer (40-60 g of granulated superphosphate are introduced per 1 sq. M).
Sweet cherry is a thermophilic culture. Therefore, before you plant it on your plot, competently approach the choice of a suitable variety. Only trees of winter-hardy varieties can withstand the cool and unpredictable weather of the middle lane.
Preparation of the landing area
How to plant a sweet cherry in the spring? First you need to do the preparation of the soil. The soil should be fertile and breathable, easy to absorb and retain moisture. Well, if the land on your site is medium loamy or sandy. Sweet cherry is demanding of moisture, but it does not tolerate stagnant water at the roots. For the same reason, it cannot be planted where groundwater lies close to the surface.
Since the cherries are pollinated in a cross way, need to plant several seedlings of different varieties. Cherry is perfect for pollination, because it blooms at the same time. Experts believe sweet cherry demanding crop culture. Therefore, when planting, it is necessary to strictly follow all recommendations - this is the key to successful fruiting in the future.
Regardless of the composition of the soil, the land in the planting pit is additionally fertilized. To do this, use:
- mineral phosphorus-potassium fertilizers,
- organic matter in the form of humus or compost,
- lime (applied in the amount of 0.5 kg / sq. m on light soils and up to 1 kg / sq. m on heavy).
If the soil is chernozem, the content of potassium and applied organic matter is halved, and that of phosphorus is increased to 25 g / sq. Mortar fertilizers are made into a solution, in dry form they will not give the desired effect. Before planting, the land should stand fallow for a year., without use.
Before planting the seedlings dig up the soil and remove all weeds. In the future, the width of the tree trunk circle is increased every year, bringing to 1.5 m. Be sure to do weeding and fall asleep with mulch.
Instructions on how to plant a cherry in the spring should begin with a description of the preparation of the planting pit. It will be correct to prepare a place where you will plant a sweet cherry, in advance. This is done 3-4 months before the purchase of seedlings. The depth of the pit should be about 60 cm, and the width - 80 cm. Then 2 buckets of humus fall asleep there, mix it with a part of the ground and leave it in winter.
Immediately before planting, 1 kg of ash or 0.4 kg of superphosphate and 0.1 kg of sodium sulfate are introduced into the pit, and mixed thoroughly. Do not exceed the dose of fertilizing, everything is good in moderation. Excess fertilizer provokes a strong growing season, shoots may simply not have time to mature to frost.
Preparation and planting seedlings
Saplings on sale are one-and two-year. Most gardeners prefer to plant annual trees. It is better to purchase planting material with a closed root system.so it dries less and is damaged. In the fall, planting is not carried out, because fresh growth will freeze out in winter. And the new branches planted in spring will have time to grow woody and stronger.
- A seedling should not have swollen buds, such trees do not survive well, have weak immunity and are more often affected by diseases.
- Before planting, the roots are shaken off the ground and inspected, simultaneously removing all defective areas. If the roots are strongly dried, they are recommended to be soaked in water for 6-8 hours.
- Some practice dipping the root system into a liquid mixture of clay and mullein, after which it is allowed to dry. It is believed that this technique has a positive effect on survival rate, improving the contact of the roots with the soil.
- A cone is formed from fertilizers and earth and a seedling is placed on it. Filling it in half, pour a bucket of water, it will help to seal the soil in the hole.
- Then fall asleep the remaining soil, slightly compacted, make a groove in a circle and shed another bucket of water.
- When planting, the root collar is raised 5 cm above the soil surface. Over time, the soil will settle and the neck will be flush with the surface.
- Next to the cherry they install a peg and tie a tree to it. Top as a mulch sprinkle the soil with peat or humus.
Caring for seedlings after planting
It is possible to estimate the period after planting a young tree that needs fertilization, according to the number of shoots in the growth. If three or more sprouts have grown before the start of fruiting, then it is possible not to feed the sweet cherries yet, and when the growth was weak, the application of nitrogen fertilizer is required.
Potassium and phosphorus, planted during planting, lasts until next year. Organic fertilizers during the growing season are valid, but in small quantities. After all, they give the effect in combination with mineral. Organics when making do not dissolve in water, but instilled into the top layer of soil.
Cherry needs regular watering. On the eve of winter, it is especially important to saturate the soil with moisture. In the spring, the tree must be watered before the buds swell. The second time watering is carried out immediately after flowering. The last time the soil is moistened 3 weeks before the start of fruit ripening.
Starting from the 2nd year after planting, the cherry is fertilized 2-3 times per season. On one bucket of slurry dissolved in water add 1 tbsp. l mineral fertilizers, mix thoroughly and produce dressing. It is best to fertilize in May and June.. Trees older than three years old can be fertilized additionally. Nitrogen stops making after fruiting. An excellent tool for fertilizing fruit trees is ash.
Sweet cherry transplant
It is believed that transplanting cherries is undesirable, but sometimes it still needs to be done. Perhaps it was originally chosen is not suitable for her place, or required redevelopment of the site. Without damage to the tree, it can be done if it is not older than 2 years. A more mature seedling has a volumetric root system and during transplantation it will inevitably be damaged.
Like landing, transplantation is best done in the spring. In this case, the landing pit should also be prepared in the autumn, as well as for the first planting, adding organic matter and mineral fertilizers to it. The tree, intended for transplanting, is dug out with a lump of earth, trying to damage the roots as little as possible. After that, it is lightly added dropwise in a horizontal position.
Before planting, check the roots and remove damaged or decayed, and then powder it with ashes. The neck is raised above the landing site by 8 cm, in the future it will settle. If the neck is embedded in the soil, it is likely that the cherry will die. After transplantation, water is poured abundantly with water with the addition of heteroauxin, which promotes rooting. You need to use at least 6 buckets of water.
The newly planted tree also requires a garter. For better survival of the roots of the branch is better to shorten by 1/5 of their length.
For summer residents living in the central zone or closer to the north, it is better to opt for late-flowering or frost-resistant varieties. Then the bloom passes the threat of spring frosts.