Growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse is a very popular activity not only among large agricultural companies, but also individuals living in the CIS countries. Today we will talk in detail about how to plant tomatoes in polycarbonate greenhouses, what you need and why you need it at all.
General rules for growing
Before exploring in detail the topic of growing tomatoes in greenhouse conditions, you should take a look at the general rules, which are indicated in the following paragraphs:
- The foundation of the greenhouse must be strong enough to withstand heavy wind and the weight of snow.
- Seedlings are grown in separate greenhouses or at home.
- The design of the greenhouse must necessarily allow for the vertical garter of tomatoes.
- You should have enough free time, as it will require regular fragments of extra inflorescences, as well as unnecessary foliage on tomato bushes.
- Take care in advance of the sources of organic fertilizers, which require a sufficiently large amount.
- If you plan to place more than 10 long tomato beds in your greenhouse, it is more convenient to place drip irrigation in it.
- In the greenhouse there should be enough free space for maneuvers with buckets of water (it will take a lot of water)
The process of growing tomatoes in greenhouse conditions consists of the following main steps:
- Greenhouse preparation,
- Choosing the right seeds,
- Greenhouse preparation,
- Growing seedlings
- Planting seedlings
- Subsequent care of seedlings and harvest.
How to choose and prepare tomato seeds?
There are special varieties of tomato, which are focused on growing in greenhouse conditions.
These varieties have a combination of the following qualities:
- High yield.
- High or low ripening speed.
- Gastronomic quality.
- Resistance to diseases and adverse environmental factors.
- Dimensions of the fruits themselves.
- Suitability grade for long-term storage, without loss of taste and aesthetic qualities.
Depending on which of the above qualities imposes you, choose the appropriate sort of tomato.
So, if high yield is important to you, the seeds of the following varieties will suit you for growing:
If you need fast speed of fruit ripening, pay attention to the seeds of the following varieties:
- Typhoon, Druzhok, Ilyich, Poisk, Verlioka, Semko-98. These varieties are early maturing,
- "Hurricane", "Samara". These varieties are precocious,
- "Junior", "Amber", "The joy of summer", "Bear in the north." These varieties are super-fast.
If you need the most pronounced taste, pay attention to the seeds of the following varieties:
- Cherry. The grade has high tastes as fresh, and perfectly is suitable for drying and preservation.
- Caspar-F1. The variety fits perfectly with dietary salads, and is great for salting or pickling.
- "Friend", "Sultan", "Rosemary". Varieties with juicy and tender flesh, with a thin skin and a slightly sweet taste, which makes them an excellent option for fresh use.
- "Malachite Box". One of the most delicious varieties of green tomatoes.
- "Bull's heart", "Truffle". One of the most delicious varieties of red tomatoes.
- "Yellow Long", "Honey King". One of the most delicious varieties of yellow tomatoes.
- Marisol Violet, Black Cherry. One of the most delicious varieties of black tomatoes.
- "Dimensionless", "Pink Flamingo". One of the most delicious varieties of pink tomatoes.
If you need tomatoes that are resistant to diseases and adverse weather conditions, have a look at the following varieties:
- “Verlioka”, “Olya”, “Ural” and varieties “De Barao”, “Admiralteysky”. The varieties are well tolerated by lack of sunlight.
- "Barberry F1", "Lyuban", "Orange Giant", "Banana Feet", "Pink Raisin", "Orange Icicle", "Carrot", "Zinulya", "Siberian Giant". Varieties resistant to heat and drought.
- “Roma”, “Yerema”, “Evpator”, “Intuition”, “Blagovest”. And varieties: "Budenovka", "Chio-chio-san." Varieties most resistant to fungal invasions.
If you need varieties with the largest possible fruits, the following seeds will suit you for growing:
If you need the smallest possible fruit, you can use the following seeds:
The most cultivated tomatoes for growing include the following varieties:
Having decided on the variety, you should prepare the seeds for further planting, for which follow the following points:
- Remove all too small and damaged seeds, leaving only the large and whole in appearance.
- One and a half months before planting the seeds, wrap them in a dry cloth, and warm them by putting them on the battery or in a warm place, the temperature of which reaches 40-50 degrees for a period of 3-4 days.
- Before planting, decontaminate the seeds by placing them in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes.
- Before planting, soak the seeds for a day in one of the solutions of Wirtan-Micro, Epin, Immunocytophyte.
How to prepare a greenhouse?
If you want to grow tomatoes in greenhouse conditions, you have to properly prepare the greenhouse.
Preparation of the greenhouse should be as follows:
- Inspect the greenhouse for damage, especially if the polycarbonate coating has suffered winter.
- Prepare space for beds in advance.
- Tension the wire along the entire length of the greenhouse, at a height of about 2 meters. The wire should be at the level of the center of each bed.
- Disinfect the greenhouse by using hydrated lime. Take 3 kg of hydrated lime, mix it with 10 liters of water, and add 500 grams of copper sulfate to it. The resulting liquid process frame greenhouse, and its inner walls.
- Tomatoes require frequent airing, which means you should check or install window leaves in the greenhouse, preferably on the ceiling.
- Check the efficiency of the irrigation system (if any), as well as heating systems (if you plan to grow tomatoes in the winter).
For the cultivation of tomatoes is required to prepare the ground. Preparation of the soil can be done in different ways, a complete list of which would require writing a separate book.
For this reason, we describe the best way to prepare the soil of tomatoes in the greenhouse, which consists of the following points:
- In the greenhouse, remove 40 centimeters of old soil over the whole area of tomato cultivation.
- At the very bottom should be put 3-5 centimeter layer of old branches, the thickness of a crimson shoot.
- The second layer is made of sawdust, the layer of which should reach 5 cm. If possible, a thin layer of weeds can be put on top of the sawdust, but not the tops after garden plants.
- If you plan to grow tomatoes in winter, the third layer should consist of manure, 10 cm thick. If you plan to grow tomatoes only in autumn or spring, the manure is replaced with a peat layer of similar thickness.
- After the done manipulations, we fall asleep all this with the previously acquired primer.
The ground itself for the greenhouse is prepared on the basis of the following ingredients:
- garden land,
- vegetable humus a year ago,
- compost regardless of the type and age
- sod land
Sod and vegetable land in the total mass should occupy 60% of the soil for tomato. Compost, sand, peat and humus should account for 10% for each component.
The soil prepared in this way should be laid in the greenhouse at the end of summer or early autumn, after which it should be drawn at least until spring. Immediately after laying the soil, treat it with a solution of phytosporin, watering it abundantly with this solution from a watering can. This is necessary to control the destruction of possible fungal spores.
We recommend buying ready-made soil for growing greenhouse tomatoes in garden stores, as this will save you a lot of time and effort.
How to grow seedlings?
If you want to get healthy tomatoes, you need to learn how to properly grow and care for seedlings.
To do this, you should initially prepare a container for future seedlings, which should be one of the following types:
- Wooden boxes with a side height of 7 cm, the bottom of which must be sent by film.
- Plastic containers 28 cm wide and 32 cm long.
- For the subsequent pickling of the seedlings, you will need one-liter plastic bottles, in which the neck should be cut off, or you can get plastic cups, the depth of which should be at least 15 cm.
Having defined the container, we proceed to the immediate planting of the future seedlings, based on the following points:
- Take the prepared container, and pour into it a layer of soil 5 cm thick.
- Pack soil evenly.
- Take a ruler, and make a kind of grooves, the depth of which should be half a centimeter. The grooves should be marked along the entire length of the tare area, with a distance of 3 cm from each other.
- Prepared tomato seeds are placed in each of the grooves, at a distance of 3 cm from each other.
- After planting the seeds, the grooves are carefully filled with a 1 cm layer of soil, lightly tamped, and moistened with a sprayer.
- Capacity close cellophane package, and put in a warm place until the first shoots. The temperature of the place where the seeds will germinate should not fall below 25 degrees. Otherwise, the seeds will germinate much longer. Watch the moisture level under the film, and timely spray the soil, not letting it dry.
After the first shoots appear, proceed to the following growing activities, such as:
- Remove the film and install the container on the windowsill, the temperature of which should not fall below 20 degrees during the day, and 14 degrees at night.
- Organize seedlings for additional illumination, for which fluorescent lamps are ideal, or special fitolamps for seedlings with a pink glow. It is advisable to keep the backlight on for at least 16 hours a day.
- Spray the seedlings in a timely manner so that the soil is wet. It should be sprayed, not watered.
- Feed the seedlings every 10 days, using chicken droppings or cow manure. Chicken droppings are bred at the rate of 100 grams per 10 liters of water, and cow manure at the rate of 300 grams per 10 liters of water. On one container of the size indicated above no more than 500 ml of this kind of fertilizer should be consumed.
- If you feel the need, in the intervals between feeding you can water the seedlings with fresh water, the temperature of which should not be below 20 degrees.
After completing all of these points, grow seedlings before picking them.
Plant picking should be carried out so that in the future they can be easily transplanted to the garden bed, without damaging the root system. Moreover, without picking, the root system of the seedlings can be confused with each other, and then their transplantation can be fatal for them.
Pick up seedlings after growing should be performed in accordance with the following points:
- Picks are done about a month after the first shoots appear.
- The picking is done only when the seedlings will have 6 leaves.
- Before picking, seedlings are watered abundantly.
- In cups or plastic bottles should pour the ground to the brim, and ram it.
- After tamping down the soil, take a wand and squeeze a hole in the soil 2-3 cm deep in it.
- At the bottom of the fossa throw a pinch of superphosphate.
- Take a fork, and gently pry a bush of seedlings under its root system, and then remove it from the container. The first two leaves of the germ must be broken.
- Shake off the excess ground from the root system of the sprout, and plant it in a cup or bottle.
- Pour hole, lightly tamp and pour the sprout with 30 milliliters of sodium humate solution.
- For about a week, keep the transplanted sprouts above the extra light,
- Water the seedlings as the soil dries.
Transplant shoots in the greenhouse
The final stage in the cultivation of seedlings is transplanting it into the greenhouse.
The transplant is made on the basis of the following points:
- Seedlings transplanted into a greenhouse for about 45-50 days of growth.
- Bushes have at a distance of 50 cm from each other.
- A meter-long peg is driven in beside each bush, tying a bush to it, and to the previously stretched wire, which was discussed at the very beginning of the article.
- The holes in which the bushes will be planted should have a depth of 2-3 cm greater than the length of the root system of the seedlings.
- At the bottom of the hole add humus, a layer which should not exceed 1 cm.
- Before transplanting, the formation of a bush consists in removing almost all of its leaves, with the exception of a few of the uppermost ones.
- After the bush is in the hole, pour it in, lightly tamp it and pour it heavily.
- Mulch the soil with sawdust or manure. The thickness of the mulch should be about 10 cm.
- If you wish, you can water the seedlings planted with mineral fertilizers, but in general, this is not necessary.
Subsequent care for grown tomatoes is carried out as follows:
- Watering seedlings on day 12 after disembarkation (with the exception of the first watering immediately after planting in the ground, so that the earth settled).
- Before flowering, one bush is consumed in the order of 4 liters of water, and during flowering, in the order of 12 liters.
- Watering is carried out every 5-6 days.
- Spraying is not necessary.
- The temperature in the greenhouse should not exceed 25 degrees, and do not fall below 16. During the flowering period, the temperature can be raised to 27 degrees.
- Plant nutrition is carried out from the moment of appearance of the first ovary. Feeding is carried out with superphosphate, potassium sulfate, wood ash, or liquid mullein,
- Light mode must be at least 12 hours.
- Cut the leaves on the bushes on the ground, and get rid of the stepsons.
Possible pests and diseases
Your tomatoes after growing can be subject to the following diseases:
- Vertex rot. Treat with copper oxychloride solution, at the rate of 30 g per 10 l of water.
- Gray rot. Treat the plant with the “Shroud” and “Barrier”. Substances are sold in different concentrations, and therefore they must be diluted on the basis of instructions on the packaging.
- White spotting. Treat the plant with 1% Bordeaux mixture, or 0.5% oxychloride.
- Strick. Treat the plant with 1% manganese solution.
As for the parasites, they can be completely avoided with proper maintenance and care of the greenhouse. We will discuss more detailed information about treatment, signs and possible diseases in another article.
A few words about polycarbonate
The greenhouse films that are familiar to most summer residents today are increasingly replacing polycarbonate. This material has a number of properties that make it more attractive compared to other polymeric materials. It is required to get acquainted with its basic qualities, which have a significant impact on the cultivation of tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse.
The main advantages of the material include:
Polycarbonate has the ability to transmit up to 85% of light rays. At the same time, the material is not exposed to ultraviolet radiation, it does not yellow when exposed to the sun and does not become cloudy. Therefore, if you grow tomatoes in a greenhouse from such a material, the plants will always receive the maximum sunlight.
Polycarbonate sheets have a cellular structure. It greatly increases the ability of a material to retain heat, which neither glass nor films can boast. Such a greenhouse will allow the owner to seriously save on heating in the cold.
Polycarbonate for greenhouses
Other advantages of polycarbonate include:
- ease of processing.
In addition, the material has the ability to withstand sudden changes in temperature. Manufacturers report that it transfers temperatures within the range of -40 ... + 120 ° С without loss of physical properties.
Therefore, more and more owners of cottage and household plots prefer to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate.
Polycarbonate greenhouse specificity
Before proceeding to consider the process of growing tomatoes, it is necessary to note the main features associated with the construction and maintenance of a greenhouse of this type.
First, it is a stationary structure. Therefore, it will require a foundation, which can be of two types:
For the frame using metal supports, preferably aluminum. This metal is not subject to corrosion, it is lightweight and can withstand high loads. It is convenient to attach polymeric sheets to it, and in case of need the frame greenhouse can be easily rebuilt or enlarged.
Caring for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse requires regular ventilation. The owner of the site at the design stage should provide for the installation of ventilation hatches or opening windows with a fixed gap. On the one hand, it makes building such a greenhouse more expensive. But the owner does not put a greenhouse for one season, does he?
In a number of designs, masters create movable wall panels that can be opened. Such buildings are good in regions with a warm climate, because the design allows for a well-ventilated plants and remove excess moisture outside.
If the greenhouse will be used in spring and autumn, then a heating system should be created for it, as well as a place for a stove or other source of thermal energy.
Поскольку листы полимера обладают гибкостью, из них можно создавать полукруглые поверхности. This form allows the sun's rays to penetrate inside, without refraction and without disturbing the spectral composition of the light. In addition, the sphericity protects the structure from gusts of wind, does not allow water to accumulate on the roof.
It must be said that when choosing a site for a greenhouse, preference is given to such a place where it will be under the sunlight for most of the daylight hours. Plants will receive the maximum light needed to grow, and in the cold you can save on heating the greenhouse.
Recommendations for growing tomatoes in greenhouses
The physical properties of polycarbonate can create some inconvenience to the gardener. The need for regular airing has already been said. You also need to remember that access to fresh air should be provided not only from the side of the greenhouse, but also from above. Therefore, in the roof it is necessary to arrange several hatches.
High thermal insulation properties of the material contribute to the accelerated growth of fungal and other pests of tomatoes, including insects. The owner of the greenhouse should be treated with special solutions not only plants and the ground, but also the walls of the greenhouse, in order to prevent danger to the crop.
Experts do not recommend growing different crops in one polycarbonate greenhouse, for example, tomatoes and cucumbers. These plants have a different need for moisture and light. And where one culture will receive its norms, the friend will become underdone. And this will affect the yield.
It is not recommended to grow different crops in the same greenhouse.
To grow tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate is better in sandy loam soil with an insignificant content of clay in it. It retains moisture well, retains oxygen, maintaining a stable moisture balance between soil and air.
It should be noted that for quality growth plants are planted in parallel beds. There may be 2 or 3, with a wide aisle between them. This arrangement allows the plants to receive the maximum amount of light, leaving room for air. In addition, it is convenient for owners to work in a greenhouse, tie up plants and care for them.
For tying up of cultures use various devices. Some owners prefer wooden poles, others - attached to the ceiling beams cords.
By the way, growing of bushes in pots is gaining more and more popularity. It is convenient and practical. But the final decision is taken by the gardener himself.
Tomato cultivation technology
The answer to the question of how to grow tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse consists of several main parts:
- variety selection
- growing seedlings
- landing it in the ground
- care of plants.
It is required to consider each of them separately. When choosing a variety, many gardeners prefer hybrid species. They combine the properties inherent in different varieties of tomatoes, so these plants are better able to resist diseases and pests, grow faster and produce a higher yield.
Many gardeners collect seeds from grown fruit. They are good because the plants are already adapted to local conditions, have developed resistance, and their fecundity has been tested in practice.
The types of tomatoes are divided into:
- late maturing
- in the middle,
- in the early maturing.
Depending on this, set the time for sowing seeds for growing seedlings. The noted properties of polycarbonate to hold sunlight and retain heat allow in some regions to drive out seedlings right in the greenhouse, and not at home.
Seeds of late-ripening varieties are sown in the second half of February, mid-ripening and early ripening in the second half of March.
Planting tomatoes in a greenhouse from polycarbonate in the ground is made in 50-80 days after the sprouts appeared above the ground. This is usually the second half of May. By this time, the soil is warm enough (to a depth of 20-25 cm), and the difference between day and night air temperature is insignificant.
Grown and ready for transplant bushes should have the following external features:
- height within 25-35 cm
- leaf count 8 to 12
- the number of inflorescences 1-2.
The bushes that meet these parameters are transplanted into a greenhouse, the preparation of which begins in 5 days. The soil is fed and fertilized.
Plants are planted so that the distance with honey trunks was not less than 50 cm. This will allow the bush to grow normally, without suppressing the next. If between the trunks is more than 70 cm, the bush will begin to branch out strongly, which will negatively affect the yield.
Little tricks for big harvest
How to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate? Yields are affected by the following factors:
- soil composition
- plant food,
- watering and airing.
The most suitable soil for tomatoes is medium acidity. To make the sandy soil friability, which is necessary for the movement of oxygen, peat or sawdust of small fraction is added to it. Will help and humus, which at the same time give the soil nutrients.
As already noted, greenhouse with a polycarbonate coating can become a breeding ground for fungal and other pests. To avoid this, on the eve of the transplanting into the ground it is watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. To prepare it, take 1 g of potassium permanganate and dilute the powder with 10 liters of ordinary water. For greater effect, the liquid is heated to 60 ° C.
To facilitate the process of adapting the seedlings, experienced gardeners recommend cutting off the 2 lower leaves on each trunk.
To grow tomatoes in a greenhouse with a polycarbonate coating will help feed. They are chosen depending on the plant variety, climatic conditions and soil composition. Calcium needed for the growth of fruits of tomatoes from calcium nitrate or calcium chloride.
Watering plays an important role in obtaining a good harvest. His organization requires attention and patience from the gardener. Watered tomatoes on schedule:
- from mid-April to early June - 3 times a day at the rate of 3 liters per bush per day,
- the first half of June to the beginning of July - 3 times a day with the same volume of water
- the second half of July and the beginning of August - 1 time in 4 days with the same volume of water,
- the second half of August and September - 1 time in 6 days with the same volume of water.
Watering is done twice in the morning and evening, 1.5 liters at a time. On cold days, the daily amount of water is reduced from 3 to 2 liters. And in the heat of the amount of water increase. Drip irrigation systems can be used, but they need to be adjusted so that the plants get the right amount of moisture.
For the quality growth of the fruit tomatoes need a certain temperature. During the day, it should not exceed 25 ° С, and at night it should fall below + 15 ... + 16 ° С. Cold will adversely affect the development of fruits, especially in the primary stage of formation.
In conclusion, it should be noted that, despite the apparent difficulty of growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, the game is worth the candle. Properly constructed greenhouse and competent care will give consistently high yields. And you will be happy to eat delicious tomatoes, cook a variety of dishes, and preserve them for the winter.
Pros and cons of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse
The undoubted advantages of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse are not only the opportunity to enjoy your tomatoes before the vegetables grown on the open ground appear on the markets. The full vegetation period occurs in isolation from the external environment, and thus the plant will not be able to damage the pests and pathogens outside the greenhouse.
Similarly, various climatic factors cannot affect the growth of greenhouse plants:
- humidity and precipitation
- atmospheric pollution, etc.
In case of a danger of disease, the owner of the greenhouse can be sure that it will not spread beyond the dome, and inside the room itself, procedures for the elimination of any diseases, as well as preventive measures, are easier and faster.
But it should be noted that greenhouse vegetables (and tomatoes in particular) are inferior in taste to congeners grown in an open garden.
If we consider the greenhouse itself as a structure, then most often for this purpose polycarbonate (solid transparent substance) or polyethylene (soft transparent film) is used as a tension material. Their advantages include their tightness (in the case of polycarbonate and strength), the ability to transmit sunlight and protect the inner space from unwanted exposure to the environment. Polycarbonate greenhouses serve up to 20 years.
The disadvantage of all greenhouses is the flammability of the plastic used for the construction of the structure. Therefore, you need to comply with fire safety.
An important point is the cost of tomatoes grown in the greenhouse. If this is a small greenhouse, electrified and equipped with a ventilation and irrigation system, climate control and other additional means, then tomatoes will not be cheap. But the quality will be the highest. To reduce the cost can be due to the expansion of the landing area. The greater the greenhouse, the greater the yield and lower the cost.
When to plant tomatoes for seedlings for the greenhouse
The date of sowing tomato seeds for planting seedlings in a greenhouse depends on the material. If polycarbonate is used in the construction of the dome, seeds should be sown in late February - early March. If the greenhouse film, the period is shifted by 10 days.
When the room, home seedlings will turn a month and a half, we must expect the appearance of the first floral brushes. Their appearance is a signal that it is impossible to hesitate with a transplant. Procrastination is not that death is like, but it will definitely cause a decrease in yield.
If for any reason the planting of room seedlings in the greenhouse is delayed, then:
- the total length of stay of the germ in the room should not exceed 2 months,
- for each sprout it is necessary to provide a volume of not less than a liter of soil.
Violation of these rules will lead to the fact that seedlings will not be able to get a full-fledged bush of tomatoes, not to mention the harvest. In case of emergency, you can transfer planting seedlings in the greenhouse for 7 days, if you get rid of the first flower brush.
Sign of readiness for transplantation and high quality seedlings:
- thick stem
- developed leaves
- good root system
- defined large buds.
The color of good seedlings is bright green, closer to dark.
The main condition for the successful cultivation of healthy seedlings of tomatoes - the maximum approximation to favorable natural conditions. This, by the way, applies not only to seedlings, but also to adult bushes.
The light regime should be natural: during the day - the light, at night - the darkness. Relight or lack of light will affect the process of photosynthesis, necessary for normal plant growth.
In order to bring conditions closer to natural ones, it is necessary to increase the illumination in the daytime if necessary, it is necessary to warm the air.
- With the onset of night time, the temperature must be reduced by 5 ° C.
- The recommended temperature regime is from 20 to 25 ° С in the daytime and from 16 to 18 ° С in the night (dark).
Do not rely on natural light and greenhouse temperature. Without regulation of these indicators, the growth of seedlings will be uneven, and grown bushes will not provide good yields.
It must be remembered that in the first three weeks we should not expect rapid growth of transplanted seedlings. It is at this time that tomatoes need sufficient illumination. Otherwise, they will look like typical "shadow" plants: pale, thin overgrown, stretching to the light.
Watering tomato seedlings needs good: tomatoes love moisture. Water should be at room temperature, about 20 ° C. Radical watering should be carried out directly above the soil. If even the smallest water particles will fall on the sheets, especially in the depressions at the stem, there is a high probability of leaf rot and loss. Too high air humidity under the greenhouse dome is not needed: 60 is enough, maximum 70%.
Landing in the greenhouse
Landing in a greenhouse grown in room conditions seedlings - a very important point. A plant, even the healthiest, still endures this process as stress. Therefore, it is necessary to create all the conditions so that the seating will start at a new place and not be stressful.
When to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse, the timing
The main factor determining the time when the seedlings start planting is its heat supply. Arrange the greenhouse so that you can maintain the desired temperature, you can without much hassle, but all this will increase the cost of the resulting products.
If the heating system or the ambient temperature environment allows you to maintain the intraplastic temperature not lower than 15 ° C, the seedlings can be planted year-round. In the absence of heating, plants can be planted in the first decade of May, but not in the first numbers.
In order for seedlings to grow, you need 50-60 days. The term of germination depends on the grade of the tomato. If the variety is short, two months will be enough for it, and tall varieties will require an additional week or one and a half.
Distance between tomato
Experienced "tomato growers" who have been growing tomatoes in their own greenhouses for several years have already developed their own schemes for themselves. But novice gardeners will be useful to know what determines the distance on the greenhouse beds between tomato plants, and what determines the layout of the seating. This knowledge will make it possible to use every centimeter of greenhouse soil with maximum efficiency.
By the way, about the soil: it needs to be prepared, processed and heated.
Of great importance is the determinism or indeterminacy of the selected variety. Immediately we warn you: indeterminate varieties are suitable for greenhouse cultivation in all regions, and it is better not to plant determinants in the northern regions, since there will be a lot of trouble and the returns will not match them.
Determinant Tomatoes - these are the ones that stop growing after a maximum of 5 brushes are fastened. In indeterminate varieties, the stem grows indefinitely, and one shrub can produce up to 50 brushes under favorable conditions and proper care.
The determinant tomatoes are planted in a checkerboard pattern, the distance between each plant is 70 cm, between the rows - 80 cm. Terminant varieties need 50 inter-row centimeters, and the walking distance between the seedlings is no more than 30 cm.
If you have taken a seedling of early ripening or short-growing tomatoes, it should be planted in two rows in chess order, the distance is 40 cm. The reason is that these varieties form two or even three stalks.
It is necessary to take into account the shape of the dome of the greenhouse. For the "house" is better to use the combined landing methods.
How many pieces are in the greenhouse
Most greenhouses gardeners planted 2 bushes per square meter. The standard layout in the six-meter greenhouse is four rows with a passage in the middle. Determinant varieties are best planted in the rows farthest from the aisle, intederminanta closer to the aisle. On 6 m 2 in this way 48 plants can be placed.
Tomato care in the greenhouse
To care for the tomatoes under the tent is necessary, based on the grade, condition of the plants, as well as the constitutional features of each sprout.
Water the bushes need every five days, otherwise the fruits will become watery and will get a sour taste. Seedlings should not be watered at all 7-9 days after transplantation, so that the root system “spreads out” well in the new soil.
An important point: before transplanting you need to carefully treat the watering to avoid sticking of the soil to the roots. Heavy wet ground, sticking, can tear off thin roots, which will worsen the health of the seedlings after transplanting into the greenhouse.
Water should be at room temperature.
Greenhouses prefer tall tomato varieties, as they occupy as much area as undersized, and bear fruit much more abundantly.
When starting tying, remember that:
- you need to tie up a tomato as you grow
- Not only the stalk needs support, but also branches
- it is impossible to tie fastening materials tightly
- Not every fastener is suitable for this.
Let's start with the last one. It is strictly forbidden to use for the garter is very thin and fairly durable materials, such as fishing line, thick thread, wire. The growing tomato will fall on them with all its weight, and then the plant's tissues will be damaged or even cut off. For the same reason, the hardware should not be too tight to knit: the tomato will grow, and the hardware will stick to the stem.
During the tying procedure, soft ropes, cloth strips and plastic loops are used. The type of fastener depends on the grade and type of support.
The timing of tying is determined by other procedures and processes occurring with the plant. Thus, pasynkovanie - this is the procedure immediately preceding the garter. You also need to hurry with tying, if there are ovaries on the bush.
The following attachment methods are used:
- to individual support,
- vertical trellis,
- frame (with the use of wire).
Fabric fixation is very popular, as it can be used for old clothes, and both synthetic and natural cotton fabric. Хлопчатые подвязки выбрасываются после использования, а синтетика (разрезанные чулки, колготы, гольфы и т.д.) снимается с каркаса, стирается и применяется опять. При шпалерном выращивании можно крепить ствол растения клейкой лентой.
В качестве опорного материала можно использовать как металлические и пластиковые трубы, так и деревянные палки. На них же натягивается и каркас.
In industrial greenhouses, instead of single pylons, a metal grid is often used, to the cells of which the growing tomato bush is tied up during its entire growth.
The formation of a greenhouse tomato plant consists in beading and pinching. All these procedures are applicable only to tall grades. Punching is pinching the tops. This prevents the growth of the bush and the formation of excessive amounts of fruit-bearing stems.
If you do not do this, the tomato will simply go into rapid growth and will constantly form new shoots. As a result, we get a large amount of green mass and a minimum amount of fruit with low taste.
Pysynki - unwanted, extra shoots on the stem. These are axillary sprouts. They begin to remove 12-14 days after the seedlings are planted in the greenhouse. Next you need to observe and carry out the procedure of the pinching every 10-12 days. Axillary shoots should not grow.
Total formative stems in a tomato bush should be no more than three, and the number of floral brushes should not exceed eight.
Pasynki need to be removed no earlier than they reach the 5-centimeter length. And do not trim them. The best way to remove it is to break it off. Stepchildren break off early in the morning: at this time the stalks are most fragile. But you can not break it off to the ground, should remain dvuhsantimetrovy stump. This will prevent the formation of a new stepchild at the same place.
If the task is to get the first crop of tomatoes as early as possible, you need to leave one stem and no more than three brushes on it. Anything above the top brush also needs to be broken off.
One also needs to pass at the bedrock stepchildren, who are visible on the very ground.
The first feeding time must coincide with the appearance of the first leaf. For the earliest harvest apply foliar feeding.
A young plant uses fertilizing with potassium monophosphate in a ratio of a tablespoon to 10 liters of water. Experienced growers do not recommend the use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers: they increase the green mass perfectly, after their use we get tall stems. But the tomatoes on them are very small and do not have any much pronounced taste.
It is recommended to use as a top dressing for greenhouse tomatoes:
- calcium nitrate,
- potassium nitrate,
- industrial fertilizer "Akvarin".
All these substances dissolve well in water. The best time for feeding is evening.
Features of growing
Before you start the cultivation of tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you should follow some rules:
- The base of the structure must be reliable and stable. After all, strong gusts of wind and the loss of a large amount of snow can destroy a greenhouse poorly fixed on the foundation.
- For the normal development of plants in the greenhouse, heating and additional lighting should be arranged.
- To support tomato bushes during the period of active growth, you need to think of a convenient scheme for tying up plants.
- When using the beds on which tomatoes were grown in the previous season, it is advisable to remove and dispose of the top layer of soil.
- To saturate plants with oxygen, you should consider a high-quality ventilation system.
- For a convenient passage between the bushes of tomatoes to organize the tracks that should be trampled down, sprinkle with sand or sawdust.
- When planting seedlings of tomatoes need to adhere to the distance between plants of at least 40 cm. After all, the bushes planted too close to each other, will lag behind in development, reducing the yield yield by several times.
If you want to grow a decent crop of tomatoes, the greenhouse should be carefully prepared, carry out all the necessary procedures:
- In early spring, inspect the structure, its compounds for the presence of damage to the polymer.
- Perform a complete disinfection: wash the polycarbonate from the inside with water with bleach, treat the compounds and the frame with a solution of copper sulphate.
- To carry out the processing of the soil, spilling it with hot water with the addition of iron sulphate or Bordeaux mixture.
- Having prepared places for future beds, check the heating, ventilation and lighting system.
For better penetration of sunlight through polycarbonate on plants, the polymer should be washed from the outside with water with a small amount of detergent or shampoo added, rub with a dry clean rag.
Focusing on the characteristics of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes, for cultivation in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you should choose seeds that differ in yield and endurance to adverse factors. For this, hybrids resistant to elevated daytime temperatures and disease damage are most applicable. Well proven:
- Asterix F1. Low-growing hybrid of medium term ripening with medium-sized oval fruits. Differs in the increased resistance to cracking and a fitoftor.
- Suomi F1. Determinant middle late hybrid with small fruits that are perfectly tied at elevated daytime temperatures.
- F1 silhouette. An early hybrid of a semi determinant type with red medium sized fruits. Suitable for growing in a polycarbonate greenhouse in winter.
- Lezfort F1. Semi determinant of very early ripening with large ribbed fruits. Suitable for growing in polycarbonate greenhouses in the autumn-winter period.
- Pink F1 Lady. Early indeterminate with medium-sized pink fruits. It is characterized by increased resistance to pathogen damage, has a powerful growth dynamics.
- Afen F1. Very early indeterminant with large pink fruits. The hybrid is resistant to cracking, increased daytime temperatures and diseases.
- Batyana. Early tall variety, with large pink fruits of heart shape. Suitable for growing in polycarbonate greenhouses in spring. It is resistant to late blight.
- Klondike. Early ripe undersized grade, with fruits of orange color. Differs in the increased productivity and resistance to the increased daytime temperatures.
- Katya. Medium early variety with medium-sized bright red fruits. The tomato is resistant to cracking, suitable for growing in polycarbonate greenhouses in the spring.
- Queen Margo. Variety inderminant with huge cuboid fruits of red color. Tomato is resistant to many diseases and high daytime temperatures.
Care of planted tomatoes
Subsequent care for the planted tomato seedlings consists of the following farming practices:
- After planting, young plants should be carefully shed the soil by placing a mulch with a layer of at least 15 cm on it in the root zone of tomatoes.
- After 7-10 days, future tomato bushes should be tied up to stakes or wire systems stretched at the top of the greenhouse.
- Having tied up the plants, carry out the first feeding with a liquid mullein (0.5 solution per 8 l of water) or nitrogen-containing fertilizer (15 g of nitrate or 15 g of nitroammophoska per 10 l of water). Under each root add 0.5 liters of diluted fertilizer.
- Strictly withstand temperature: during the day the air temperature should not exceed +35 degrees, at night - +16.
- In order not to create a favorable environment for the reproduction of pathogens, conduct timely ventilation of the greenhouse.
- As the bush grows, all lateral stepchildren should be removed, growing the plants into 1-2 stems.
- For a better airing of the plants, it is necessary to cut off all the lower leaves periodically.
- Tomatoes should be fed every two weeks, alternating between root and foliar.
- During the entire period of cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse, to carry out preventive measures to prevent diseases and attacks of pests.
In order to get organic vegetables you should not make mineral fertilizers. You can easily cook dressing from organic. To prepare it for 10 liters of water you need to add 500 g of rusks or bread, 200 g of nettle, 200 g of dandelion. Infusion stand in a warm place for 2-3 days, add 500 ml under each root.
Tomatoes, cultivated in polycarbonate greenhouses, are affected by diseases much less than those grown in open ground. However, with untimely airing and high humidity, parasitic fungi are inevitable. Some diseases of tomatoes are simply incurable, but most pathogens can be successfully controlled.
The most famous and dangerous disease. With the defeat of this parasitic fungus on the foliage of tomatoes are formed gray-brown spots with mold bloom. The foliage very quickly turns yellow, twists and dies. At high humidity, night air temperature below +17 degrees, the spores of the phytophthora multiply rapidly and lead to the death of all plants.
To prevent the disease from the very beginning of the growing season, tomatoes must be treated with copper-containing preparations. In the case of a very strong defeat of spores of the pathogen, should be sprayed with fungicides: Kvadris, Tattu, Ridomil Gold, Topaz. Dilating drugs, strictly following the instructions, maintaining the necessary waiting times.
Necrosis of the stem
Viral disease falling on a tomato bush from infected soil. In the lower part of the stem of the plant, small tears of green color appear with whitish spores, which eventually become gray-brown. The leaves of tomatoes begins to lose its turgor, dry out and fall off. The disease is active for 20 days. After that, 80% of the bushes fade, and the fruits do not even have time to ripen. The development of the virus contributes to a sharp decrease in night-time temperatures up to +6 degrees, the use of a tool that has not passed disinfection, and the untimely destruction of insect vectors of the virus.
To carry out preventive measures in order to avoid the occurrence of core necrosis, the soil in the greenhouse should be disinfected in advance in the greenhouse with the following preparations: Amestar, Carbezim, Previkur, Fitolavin. It is necessary to maintain temperature and humidity that is stable for the normal growth of tomatoes, and every two years to replace the soil layer in the greenhouse. You should only grow disease-resistant varieties and hybrids: Ljana, Sanka, Volgograd, President F1, Rosento F1, Tolstoy F1.
A fungal disease, the first symptom of which is the appearance of light yellow plaques with brown edging on the upper part of the leaves of tomatoes. Gradually, spore-affected areas grow, foliage dries out. The stems of tomatoes begin to frown, and the tops fade. With the late processing of tomatoes, the physiological process is disturbed, the plant does not bloom well and does not form fruit. The disease progresses under the condition of high humidity.
In order to defeat the parasitic fungus, it is necessary to carry out preventive processing of plants and soil with copper-containing preparations. In case of severe damage by septoria, plants should be sprayed with industrial fungicides: Topaz, Quadris, Ridomil Gold, Tatto.
Physiological disease that occurs due to lack of moisture and active evaporation from the plant itself. For this reason, a part of the cells of the topping fruits of tomato die, giving impetus to the development of top rot. The disease can also occur due to excessive nitrogen content in the soil or lack of calcium.
It is necessary to start the fight against the disease in early spring, spilling the soil with hot water with the addition of manganese potassium at the rate of: for 10 liters of water - 1 g of permanganate. During the active growth of tomatoes it is necessary to provide them with sufficient and timely watering. Upon detection of the first signs of the disease, treatment with the following preparations: Nutrivant, Appin, Zircon, Brexil.
Retain moisture in the soil as long as possible using mulch. Organic material should be laid in the root zone of plants with a layer of about 15-25 cm.
A fungal disease that begins its development at the stage of growing seedlings. To provoke a disease in young plants can poorly disinfected or waterlogged soil. Infected plants planted in the greenhouse begin to darken in the root zone, the bushes lose their turgor even with sufficient watering, become covered with white bloom and die.
Preventive measures to prevent the development of root rot should be carried out from the very beginning of growing seedlings. To do this, the soil before sowing seeds should be poured with hot water with the addition of manganese. When the first pair of true leaves grows on seedlings, conduct preventive treatment with Previcur.
Physiological disease of tomatoes, occurring due to a sharp change in plant growth. Often, the cracking of fruits is triggered by a difference in day and night temperatures, by over-irrigation.
To prevent sudden changes in temperature conditions, it is necessary to equip the greenhouse with sufficient ventilation. Regular watering without additional drops will also prevent tomato fruits from cracking. Top dressing should be brought only in the dissolved look after plentiful watering.
A successful method without the use of chemistry in the fight against pathogens is the use of EM-drugs. Live predatory bacteria will neutralize parasitic fungi at the cellular level, increasing the immunity of plants.
The secrets of growing tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate
To get a high-quality crop of tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you need to know a few secrets:
- Tomatoes - plants that need enough sunlight. Therefore, they should be planted from north to south, evenly illuminated throughout the day.
- When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, in no case should cucumbers be planted next to them, since the temperatures of these crops do not match.
- For the best development of tomatoes, in a greenhouse should establish a container with a diluted mullein. The gas released during fermentation will contribute to the death of pathogens.
- If you wish to grow tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse without the use of pinching, you can plant ultra early short-growing varieties. Such tomatoes, even without removing the side shoots, will thank for a decent harvest.
How to get an early harvest
Getting an early harvest of tasty meaty tomatoes already by May 1-9 is not at all difficult. To do this, start sowing seeds in the last days of December. For high-quality seedlings need:
- worry about additional lighting with fluorescent lamps or LED lights,
- to treat young seedlings with growth stimulants,
- use inhibitor agents.
Before planting seedlings in a permanent place in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you should think about additional heating, lighting and ventilation. In the last decade of March, young plants should be planted, beating with organic matter for at least 25-30 cm. Maintaining the daytime temperature in the greenhouse about +26 degrees, and the nighttime temperature - at least +17 degrees, feed the tomatoes every 10-15 days.
For the best education of fruits, should be processed brown. On 1 liter of water, add a teaspoon of boric acid, spray the flower brushes of tomatoes.
How to care for tomatoes in the winter
If you want to have tomatoes on your table all year round and enjoy the grown fruits even in winter, you should find out the features of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse during the cold season:
- seeds should be sown in late August
- grown seedlings are required to complete illumination, providing a daylight time of at least 17 hours,
- after planting the seedlings to a permanent place, the necessary temperature and humidity should be created in the greenhouse,
- conduct a double treatment with an Athlete inhibitor.
Diseases and pests
The main trouble awaits greenhouse tomatoes as early as adolescence: tomato seedlings often suffer from the so-called black leg. You can fight this disease by changing the soil before planting.
From late blight can be saved by prophylactic treatment.. Various solutions are used for this. Very popular industrial drugs "Barrier" and "Barrier". For the most effective protection, step processing is used, which is carried out at intervals of three times per season. Initially, the planting is treated with a “Shield” with a dosage of one cap per 300 g of water, the second time we take the “Barrier” - 5 tbsp. spoons per 10-liter bucket. Final processing - garlic: finely crush the head of garlic, pour hot water (bucket), and when cooled to room temperature, pour the plants.
When spraying it should be remembered that the first such procedure can be performed only 20 days after planting in the greenhouse.
To make tomatoes sick as little as possible, greenhouses recommend not growing tomatoes in a row in the same greenhouse for several years. It is not necessary to alternate their landing with cucumbers.
Previously, it was considered a panacea, they say, there are no common diseases, and recently the disease was discovered, and his name is anthracnose. Therefore, before planting tomatoes, it is better to change the soil and pre-spray it with hot copper sulphate (1 tbsp per 10-liter bucket). Water should be literally boiling water.
The benefits of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse
- Главное преимущество, это возможность более ранней высадки рассады, как следствие более ранний урожай.
- Рассада защищена от возвратных заморозков.
- В период затяжных дождей, теплица уменьшает вероятность заражения фитофторой.
- Когда в августе ночные температуры снижаются, бывают росы по утрам, нет необходимости торопиться со сбором урожая. Помидоры успевают вызреть на корню.
How to prepare the soil in the greenhouse
It is necessary to prepare the soil for planting in the fall. Every three years, the top layer of soil, about five centimeters must be removed and removed from the greenhouse. Before digging the land should be fertilized. You need to know the structure of the soil to know what to contribute.
- Soil with a predominance of peat in the composition requires an additive per 1 m2:
- A bucket of sawdust, vylazhavshis.
- A bucket of humus.
- Polvedra large river sand.
If the soil in the greenhouse is loamy, enough buckets of humus per square meter.
In addition, you need to add:
- Wood ash 1 tbsp.
- Superphosphate granules 1 tbsp. l
- Potassium sulfate 1 tbsp. l
- Urea 1 tsp.
It is necessary to dig up the earth on the bayonet of a shovel, and level it with a rake. Greenhouse prepared for landing. In winter, it is good to throw snow into it. When thawing in the spring in the soil will be a reserve of moisture.
In winter, in specialized stores, the sale of seeds begins, for the new season. Before you go shopping, you need to read the reviews of gardeners from your region on the Internet. Choose those varieties that have a greater number of positive responses.
At the same time for the right choice, the following characteristics matter:
- Variety resistance to pathogens.
- Plant height: determinant - up to 0.9 m., Indeterminate may grow up to 2 m.
- Maturing term: early ripening, mid-ripening, late ripening.
- Fruit size: large-fruited, small-fruited, cherry.
- Appointment: salad, for processing, universal.
In order to get a harvest of fresh tomatoes from early spring to late autumn, it is necessary to select varieties of different ripening terms.
To effectively use the area of the greenhouse, it is worth buying only indeterminant varieties of tomatoes.
If you plan to harvest, in the form of marinades, tomato paste, pickles. Do not forget to buy tomatoes suitable for processing, or universal purpose. For summer consumption suitable large-fruited varieties, salad destination.
How to prepare seeds for planting
Proper seed preparation ensures good germination and healthy seedlings. Sow the first seeds should be in February. Before you start preparing seeds, it is worth reading the instructions on the package. If it is written that the seeds have already been processed, they do not need to be further prepared.
To exclude empty seeds, make a weak saline solution, immerse the seeds in them, those that float up, empty, reject them. Down on the bottom suitable for planting, get them, rinse.
For dressing, you can hold them in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, not more than 20 minutes, then rinse, wrap in a damp napkin, leave in a warm place for a day. For tempering, you can keep them in the fridge for 24 hours. The napkin should be wet.
We plant seeds
If you are a novice gardener, the soil should be purchased in the store is ready. Check the composition. On sale is peat soil it is not suitable for growing seedlings. The soil should be composed of the desired set of trace elements, nitrogen 250 mg / l, potassium, phosphorus. Acidity is within normal range, PH 6-7.
To take the boxes for seedlings are not deep, for planting seeds a layer of soil of 5 cm is sufficient. Moisturize the soil well with warm settled water. Prepare the grooves in them with an interval of 2 cm, put the seeds, cover them with soil, layer up to 2 cm. It is better to close the boxes with cellophane and put them in a warm, bright place for germination. Once every two days open for airing.
It is necessary to monitor the soil moisture, it is impossible to overdry, but excessive watering is not needed. When the seeds are full, several true leaves will appear, the seedlings need to be smashed into separate containers.
As containers, you can adapt disposable cups, plastic jars of sour cream, or purchase special containers in a store. Dive should be in a well-moistened soil.
To get a strong seedling, as it grows, the night temperature must be gradually lowered, this will reduce the likelihood of stretching the seedlings. Additional highlighting also reduces excessive growth. If the seedlings, nevertheless, began to pull out, it is necessary to transplant it into larger pots.
Before planting in the greenhouse, carry out feeding twice. The first dressing is best done when the first true leaves appear. Nutrient solution is prepared: 1 bucket of water, 1 tbsp. urea. A week later, we are preparing a solution for the second feeding: water 1l., Nitrophoska 1.st.l.
With the right care: timely watering, dressing, the right temperature, sufficient lighting, the seedlings are strong, with a well-developed root system and leaves of a rich green color. When planting in the greenhouse, the seedlings are not sick, but almost immediately start growing.
What diseases are affected seedlings
To get healthy seedlings have to work hard, it is subject to a number of diseases:
- Black leg, has a fungal nature, seedlings often die.
- Late blight, manifested by browning the stem and leaves. Affected seedlings should be destroyed. To prevent sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture.
- Often the seedlings are affected by viruses, then it has a change in the color of the leaves and the stem, the shape of the plant is deformed. Such seedlings need time to reject and destroy. Sprinkle healthy seedlings with a pale solution of potassium permanganate.
- Processing planting tanks disinfectant solution.
- The use of finished soil, good quality, past processing.
- Buy seeds of well-known companies with good reviews.
- To destroy the diseased saplings in a timely manner, healthy ones to spray with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, or growth stimulants, to increase immunity.
- Planting does not thicken, air, avoid excessive watering.
Planting seedlings in the greenhouse
In early May, the land in the greenhouse warms up to a temperature sufficient for planting seedlings. The seedling by this time, reaches the desired growth, about 40 cm. The leaves will already be normal, more than 10. On the eve of the landing, the cups need to be shed well. Ridges in the greenhouse also need to prepare. Depending on the variety, the distance between the holes may be different.
To choose the optimal distance, it is worth reading the description of the variety, it usually specifies how many plants per 1 m 2 can be placed. Seedlings need to gently get out of the pot, the bottom two leaves can be cut off, and transplanted into a well plant, deepening it.
Well shed warm water. The next watering will be only in 10 days. This must be observed in order for the root system of the plant to take root faster and begin to develop.
After planting seedlings in the greenhouse, night frosts are possible. If the greenhouse is not heated, it is possible to cover the tomatoes with covering material for the night. Therefore, with a garter of tomatoes, you can wait for a while.
Ten days later, the seedlings will take root, you can tie up the bushes to the support. Wooden or plastic stakes can be used as a support. Their height should be 2 meters or more, as the tomatoes in the greenhouse reach a great height.
Summer care for tomatoes
In the summer, care is reduced to regular:
- Weed removal.
- Removal of stepsons.
- Airing greenhouses.
- Disease prevention.
- In case of high temperatures, cover the top of the greenhouse with a covering material, protecting the plants from excessive heat.
- Soil mulching with chopped grass, or humus.
Root top dressing
The first feeding, 10 days after planting the seedlings in the greenhouse: a bucket of water, 1 tbsp. spoon of nitrogen fertilizer, 2 tbsp. l phosphate fertilizer, 1 tsp. potassium fertilizer. A liter jar of solution under a bush.
For the second feeding, it should be carried out at the time of flowering, to prepare a herbal infusion. To do this, fill the barrel with any grass, let it brew for several days, when the mass begins to ferment, strain, add 1 liter of infusion and 1 tbsp to each bucket of water. l of potassium sulfate. Under one plant pour one liter jar of solution.
When the first ovaries appear on the bushes, they carry out the third dressing: a bucket of hot water, a few tablespoons of table ash, 1 tsp. boric acid, insist day. A liter jar of solution on a bush.
Last feeding in August: in a bucket of water, 2 tbsp. superphosphate, 1 tbsp. sodium humate. A liter jar of solution under a bush.
It should be borne in mind that fertilizing is carried out after the main irrigation of tomatoes, this allows you to avoid burns of the roots of plants.
For foliar feeding, during the period of active flowering, for better fruit set and to reduce the fall of the ovaries from the heat:
In a three-liter jar of hot water, pour 2 tbsp. ash, insist a few days, strain, pour into a bucket of water.
With the resulting solution, spray the tomatoes in the greenhouse after sunset or in the morning before sunrise, if the weather is overcast at any time.
For a good fruit set in a greenhouse, you can put a barrel of 100 liters, fill it with grass, pour water on it. After a few days, the mixture will start to ferment, carbon dioxide will be released. It promotes better fruit setting. They grow larger. Even in hot weather there is no falling off of the ovaries.
The need for pasynkovaniya
During the entire growing season it is necessary to carry out timely removal of stepsons from the sinuses of leaves. What is it for, first of all, for:
- Proper formation of the plant, in one or two stems, depending on the type of tomato.
- Improve plant light.
- Getting more yield.
- Getting larger fruits.
- Ensuring a long period of fruiting.
- Receiving a harvest and in early terms.
Pasynki should be removed on time, when they reach a length of 3-4 cm, it is not necessary to pull them out completely, it is better to leave the stump. This will delay the formation of a new stepchild in this sinus. In addition to removing the stepsons, during the summer it is necessary to periodically remove the leaves, as the formation of fruits.
Removing leaves contributes to better illumination of the bushes, airing them, and obtaining sufficient quantities of nutrients by the fruits. Reducing the likelihood of late blight disease.
As the bush grows, it is necessary to carry out its garter to the support, this will exclude damage to the stem from the severity of the fruit. Ripened fruit, it is necessary to periodically remove, it accelerates the formation of new ovaries and pouring fruit.
If you follow the rules of caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse, you can get a decent harvest from every meter. Tomatoes bear fruit in the greenhouse until the end of September, this allows almost to frost to eat fresh tomatoes ripening right on the bush.
The best varieties of tomatoes for polycarbonate greenhouses
The best option for polycarbonate greenhouses - the so-called indeterminantny grades, that is, those that are prone to unlimited growth.
The fact is that the growth-limited tomatoes must be planted in the ground in the first half of May (otherwise they simply will not have time to give a full crop), and at this time there is a high probability of a strong decrease in temperature and frost. Another feature of the indeterminate varieties is that they begin to bear fruit early, so the tomatoes have time to ripen before the end of summer. In addition, hybrids are suitable for growing in polycarbonate greenhouses (Alexia F1, Ivanhoe F1, De Barao, etc.), since they are more resistant to diseases.
Determinant and indeterminate tomatoes
De barao red
You can also opt for tomatoes Kashtanka, Eskimo, Almaz of Yakutia, Stone Flower - they belong to the early ripe varieties, which, with appropriate care, can give an excellent harvest.
Tomato Stone Flower
Instructions for growing tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate
The main difficulties of the process consist in the fact that in polycarbonate greenhouses there is often increased humidity, temperature changes occur, and overheating of plants is possible during the day. This leads to too rapid growth of tomatoes, because of which they can get sick and be attacked by pests, so when growing a crop it is very important to strictly follow the step by step instructions.
Tomatoes in the greenhouse - photo
Stage Two. Soil preparation
High-quality soil containing the necessary substances and trace elements - one of the main conditions for the normal growth and fruiting of tomatoes.
Soil in the greenhouse requires training
Soil preparation carried out in such a way that about a week before the transplant of shoots everything was ready, and is performed as follows.
Add the necessary components to the soil, depending on its composition and type:
· For loam or clay soils - peat, compost and sawdust (bucket per square meter),
· For peat plots - sawdust, compost, turfy land for a bucket per square meter, coarse sand - 0.5 buckets,
· Chernozem - a bucket of compost and sand per square meter.
Soil for tomato seedlings
Stage Three. Seed preparation
Seed material should be selected quality, without damage or signs of disease. It is necessary to cook and plant seeds at the end of February and beginning of March, as the soil in polycarbonate greenhouses heats up quickly enough, thanks to which the transplant can be started earlier than in the case of film constructions.
Immediately after preparation, it is necessary to proceed to the next stage - planting seeds to obtain seedlings.
Stage Five. Sapling picks
It is recommended to perform the pickling of seedlings twice so that the shoots do not stretch out, but at the same time gain strength. The first procedure is performed after 2-3 leaflets appear on the sprouts, and the second after 25 days.
Tomato seedlings before and after picking
Capacity of no more than 8x8 cm filled with soil (you need to take the same mixture that was used for growing seedlings) and shed a warm solution of potassium permanganate (0.5 g dissolved in 10 liters of water).
Carefully remove the seedlings from the container using a small spatula. Each of them pinch the long tip of the main root.
How to pick pick up tomato seedlings
Plant shoots should be at a depth of no more than 6 cm, paying special attention to the location of the root system: if it bends, the hole needs to be slightly deepened.
Dive tomatoes one by one in individual pots
Tomato seedling: dive
Water the transplanted plants with warm, settled water.
The second pick is carried out after 25 days in pots for 4-7 cm more in the same way as described above.
Caring for plants at this stage is as follows.
- The first three days after the procedure, the daytime temperature should not fall below 20–22 ° C, and the nighttime temperature should be 16–18 ° C. After that, it can be reduced by 2-3 degrees.
- Watering is carried out about once a week, so that the shoots do not stretch and rot.
How to water tomatoes
To the note: some gardeners dive plants only once, and there are those who do without a pick at all, planting sprouts right in the greenhouse. The choice is better to do, based on my own experience, climate and specific varieties.
Lighting for tomato seedlings
It is recommended to transplant plants in greenhouse conditions at the age of 50 days, and the shoots should be 25-30 cm in height, have 8-12 strong leaves and 1-2 inflorescences.
The best varieties for the greenhouse
The best varieties of tomatoes for greenhouse cultivation are
- De Barao (with subspecies taking into account regioning),
- Black Prince,
- Talitsa F1
- Apple tree
- Chelbas F1,
- Blagovest F1,
- Pink giant
- F1 gem,
- Gypsy and others.
All these varieties possess such qualities as high yield, resistance to diseases and unpretentiousness.
Varieties of tomatoes for growing in the greenhouse: video
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse is a science that anyone can master. But you need to be patient and follow the rules necessary in order to get strong healthy bushes from the green seedlings, from which a bountiful harvest will be taken. You also need to understand that for such a hobby it is necessary to have certain financial resources, since the greenhouse must not only be built, but also provided with the necessary systems for the full growth of tomatoes - heating, electricity and others.